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European Journal of Medicinal Plants, ISSN: 2231-0894,Vol.: 22, Issue.: 3


Antileishmanial Effect of Coffea arabicaSalvia rhytidea and Bunium persicum against Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica Promastigotes and Their Cytotoxicity and Antioxidant Activities


Fatemeh Sharifi1, Iraj Sharifi2, Mostafa Pournamdari3 and Fariba Sharififar4*

1Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

2Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

3Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

4Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Department of Pharmacognosy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Article Information


(1) Daniela Rigano, Department of Chemistry of Natural Compounds, University Federico II of Naples, Italy.

(2) Marcello Iriti, Professor, Plant Biology and Pathology, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Milan State University, Italy.


(1) Alev Önder, Ankara University, Turkey.

(2) Noélia Duarte, University of Lisbon, Portugal.

(3) Lauve Rachel Tchokouaha Yamthe, Institute for Medical Research and Medicinal Plants, Cameroon.

Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/23649


Aims: This study was aimed to use Coffea arabica, Salvia rhytidea and Bonium persicum extracts against Leishmania major and L. tropica promastigotes to compare various concentrations of these plant extracts. In addition, their cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities were also evaluated.

Study Design: This study was performed experimentally using various concentrations of three medicinal plant extracts compared to control groups.

Methodology: Fresh seeds of C. arabica and B. persicum and leaves of S. rhytidea were powdered and each plant material was extracted by ethyl alcohol via warm maceration method. Complete medium was used to prepare nine final concentrations (1-1000 µg/ml) for experiments. The cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities of the ethanolic extracts were evaluated using colorimetric cell viability WST1 and DPPH assays. All experiments were performed in triplicate and analyzed by t-test. The optical density (OD) values as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to calculate the IC50 values. Selectivity index (SI) of the plant extracts was not attributed to cytotoxicity when it was ≥ 10.

Results: The results indicated that B. persicum extract had potent antileishmanial activity against the promastigotes of both Leishmania species based on a dose-dependent response (P= 0.001) followed by C. arabica and S. rhytidea extracts. The IC50 values for C. arabica, S. officialis and B. persicum against L. major and L. tropica were 79.2µg/mL and 40.8µg/mL; 98.7µg/mL and 45.5µg/mL and 49.4 and 23.9µg/mL, respectively. These extracts were safe for macrophages as the SI values of C. arabica, S. officialis and B. persicum for L. major and L. tropica were 12.1 and 23.5; 9.04 and 19.6 and 14.0 and 28.9, respectively. Results also confirmed the great antioxidant activities for these plant extracts.

Conclusion: The present findings indicated that the extracts possess potential antileishmanial activities and remarkable antioxidant levels with an excellent safety index.

Keywords :

Coffea arabica; Salvia rhytidea; Bunium persicum; antileishmanial; cytotoxicity, antioxidant.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-10

DOI : 10.9734/EJMP/2018/39364

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