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Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2456-8899, ISSN: 2231-0614 (Past),Vol.: 23, Issue.: 2


Effect of Lighting on Concentration of Medical Students: A Randomised Controlled Trial


Umar Bin Mohd Ramzan1*, Yang Yiqin1, Suniljeet Singh Sandhu1, Aqilah Syafiqah Binti Mahamad Yasri1, Nur Syazzwanis Binti Abdul Halim1 and Nadiahtul Izzati Binti Mohd Dan1

1Melaka-Manipal Medical College, Muar Campus, Manipal University, Malaysia.

Article Information


(1) Angelo Giardino, Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas and Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.


(1) Nazan Karao─člu, Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey.

(2) Pathiyil Ravi Shankar, American International Medical University, Saint Lucia.

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Aims: To determine the effect of lighting on concentration in college students.

Study Design: Randomised controlled trial.

Place and Duration of Study: Melaka-Manipal Medical College (MMMC), Muar Campus, Johor, Malaysia in July 2016.

Methodology: 50 students were randomly chosen and then assigned to intervention and control groups equally via randomisation. 41 students participated in this study. Participants of both groups were required to perform d2 Test of Attention and answer a structured questionnaire. The intervention group was placed in room with low luminosity while the control group was in a room with higher luminosity. Data were analysed using SPSS version 18.

Results: The intervention group had a mean score of 526.9 for concentration performance, which was lower than that of the control group at 615.3. The mean for error percentage of the intervention group was 0.10, whereas the control group had a lower mean of 0.03 for the same outcome. In general, the intervention group had significantly weaker concentration and more errors made as compared to the control group.

Conclusion: The results of this study highlight the positive effect of a higher lighting intensity has on concentration. Thus, it is recommended that educational institutes take into consideration the intensity of lighting as an important factor when setting up and designing their classrooms.

Keywords :

Concentration; attention; d2 test of attention; light intensity.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-10

DOI : 10.9734/JAMMR/2017/35245

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