+91 8617752708

British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 21, Issue.: 12


Ponticulus posticus: Anatomical Variation in Posterior Arch of the Atlas Vertebra Evaluated in Lateral Cephalometric Radiography


Sabryna Renata Closs1, Alexandre Rodrigues Freire1, Sarah Teixeira Costa1, Rafael Araujo1, Felippe Bevilacqua Prado1, Eduardo Daruge Júnior2 and Ana Cláudia Rossi1*

1Anatomy Division, Department of Morphology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.

2Forensic Dentistry Division, Department of Social Odontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.

Article Information
(1) Mohammed Rachidi, Molecular Genetics of Human Diseases, French Polynesia, University Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Paris, France.
(1) Ismail Mikdat Kabakus, Erzurum State Hospital, Turkey.
(2) Melinda Danowitz, College of Osteopathic Medicine, New York Institute of Technology, USA.
(3) Satheesha Nayak, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, India.
(4) Ali Al Kaissi, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology, Vienna, Austria.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/19350


Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of the Ponticulus posticus in a Brazilian sample and discuss about the importance of this anatomical variation in forensic dentistry area.

Study Design: Observational and transversal study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Morphology, Anatomy division, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas-UNICAMP, between June 2014 and December 2015.

Methodology: We used 242 lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult individual skulls from both sexes (from 18-60 years old). The sample was divided into the following groups: 92 lateral radiographs of males, and 150 lateral radiographs of females. The visual assessment method was performed by the same examiner. Classification form was carried out in three categories in both sexes: Presence of Ponticulus posticus with complete ossification; presence of Ponticulus posticus with incomplete ossification and absence. Data were performed a descriptive analysis by a decision tree. The sample data were segmented by sex, posteriorly by the presence of Ponticulus posticus, and then as complete or incomplete. Also were applied chi square test to analyze the correlation between the presence or absent of the Ponticulus posticus in relation about sex and the correlation about the Ponticulus posticus is complete or incomplete. The significant level was adjusted to 5%.

Results: From the total sample of 242 individuals, 92 (38.02%) were male sex and 150 (61.98%) were female sex. Among the male ones, 19 (7.85%) had shown Ponticulus posticus with 10 (4.13%) of them presenting incomplete foramen ossification and the other 9 (3.72%) presenting complete foramen ossification. Concerning the females ones, 34 (14.05%) exhibited this anatomical variation, being 21(8.68%) incomplete and 13 (5.37%). In general, there was no sex influence (chi-square, p = 0.8354399) in the presence of Ponticulus posticus, indicating that sex is not an influence factor.

Conclusion: The presence of this anatomical variation cannot be related to sexual dimorphism.

Keywords :

Anatomy; cervical atlas; sex characteristics; sex dimorphism; Ponticulus posticus.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-10

DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/30378

Review History    Comments

Our Contacts

Guest House Road, Street no - 1/6,
Hooghly, West Bengal,

+91 8617752708


Third Floor, 207 Regent Street
London, W1B 3HH,

+44 20-3031-1429