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British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 11, Issue.: 11


Proportion of Refractive Error and Its Associated Factors among High School Students in South India


Nitin Joseph1*, Maria Nelliyanil2, T. P. Rekha3, Sumanth Mallikarjuna Majgi4, Sharada Rai5 and Shashidhar M. Kotian1

1Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Light House Hill Road, Mangalore, India.

2Department of Community Medicine, A. J Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Mangalore, India.

3Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Light House Hill Road, Mangalore, India.

4Department of Community Medicine, Mysore Medical College, Mysore, India.

5Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Light House Hill Road, Mangalore, India.

Article Information
(1) Rui Yu, Environmental Sciences & Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.
(1) Anonymous, Mansoura University, Egypt.
(2) Gabor Nemeth, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.
(3) Anonymous, Yenepoya University, Mangalore, India.
Complete Peer review History:


Background: School children are a high risk population for refractive errors (REs). Uncorrected REs can adversely affect the learning abilities and mental development of school children.

Objectives: This cross sectional study was conducted to observe the proportion of cases diagnosed with REs, to determine factors associated with it, to find out the practices of students in preventing these risk factors and to assess the perception towards visual aids among students with REs in schools of an urban area.

Methods: This study was done in Mangalore city in February 2013. 482 high school children were interviewed using a structured interview schedule. RE was ascertained based on records of previous diagnosis by Ophthalmologist. Data was analyzed by Chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis.

Results: The prevalence of already diagnosed cases of RE was 94(19.5%). Most of these cases had myopia 92(97.9%). Two cases were of hypermetropia. Mean age of onset of RE was 10.2±2.1 years. Only 19(20.2%) cases were first detected in schools in spite of functioning school health services at all the surveyed schools. RE cases were significantly more in private schools in comparison to government schools (P<0.001). Risk factors significantly associated with RE were history of RE among siblings (P<0.001), inadequate reading distance (P=0.011) and doing homework with inadequate illumination (P=0.021). One third of students with RE were irregular in eye examinations.

Conclusion: Proportion of REs was high among school students. Education of students on healthy postural habits and good illumination while studying at home is essential to prevent REs in this population.

Keywords :

Refractive errors; risk factors; high school students; urban area.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-9

DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/20798

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