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British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research

British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 3, Issue.: 3 (July-September)


Narghile Smoking among Jordanian Educated Working Women: Attitudes and Beliefs


N. S. Dar-Odeh1*, O. A. Abu-Hammad1, M. Al-Abdalla2, F. M. Shakhatreh1, K. B. Al-Abedalla3, N. O. Khdairi3 and S. S. Prime4

1Professor, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.
2Assistant professor, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.
3Intern, Dental department, University of Jordan Hospital, Amman, Jordan.
4Department of Oral and Dental Science, University of Bristol, Lower Maudlin Street, Bristol BS1 2LY, UK.


Article Information


(1) Xiaofeng Ren, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, China.


(1) Nouzar Nakhaee, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

(2) Tarek Tawfik Amin, Cairo University, Egypt.

(3) Anonymous.

(4) Kenneth D. Ward, School of Public Health, University of Memphis, USA.

Complete Peer review History:




Aims: We estimated the number of users of tobacco, particularly narghile (water pipe) among a sample of women working at a higher education institute in Jordan. We also investigated the attitudes of narghile smokers to their habit, together with their willingness to stop NS; and finally their awareness to oral health and their perceptions about the harmful effects of NS.
Study Design: The study was a cross-sectional survey whereby the sample was conveniently selected from all the faculties, institutes and centres of the University.
Place and Duration of Study: University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan during July 2011.
Methodology: Data were collected by allowing the participants to complete a pre-prepared questionnaire privately. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS program.
Results: Among the (96) participants, 24 ladies (25%) were smokers mostly (79.2%) of narghile. Demographic and social data of age, marital status, education level and number of children did not seem to affect smoking status. Friends and relatives were the main introducers and companions in narghile smoking (73.7%), and home was the main setting for the habit (68.4%). Whereas the hygienic practices related to narghile smoking were below the required level, narghile smokers reported a satisfactory level of oral health practices and were aware of the health risks associated with this habit.
Conclusion: Narghile smoking is showing popularity among Jordanian educated working women who invariably have children. Social influences seem to be the major player in shaping women's smoking behavior, whereby close family and friends are the introducers and home is the favorable place for practicing the habit. Specific measures are needed to educate women, their husbands and children of the health hazards of narghile especially that children are adversely affected on different levels.


Keywords :

Jordanian; women; education; narghile; tobacco.


Full Article - PDF    Page 483-490    Article Metrics


DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2013/2516

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