+91 8617752708

British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 1, Issue.: 3 (July-September)

Case Study

Risk Factors of Urinary Bladder Cancer in Islamabad, Federal Area of Pakistan

Muhammad Riaz Ahmad1* and Muhammad Khalid Pervaiz2

1Department of Statistics, GC University, Lahore, Pakistan.

2Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Department of Statistics, GC University, Lahore, Pakistan.


It is retrospective and hospital based case control study which was conducted in the federal city of Islamabad in Pakistan in order to assess the risk factors of the urinary bladder cancer. This study was based on the 100 controls and 50 cases comprising 150 subjects which were selected for interview from the two hospitals and required information like gender, age, smoking habits, family history of cancer, etc., was achieved. Both the descriptive and analytical approaches were used to find out the dominating risk factors of the disease. Odds ratios and 95 % Confidence Intervals were obtained for analytical purpose by using the binary logistic regression model. Three factors including cigarette smoking, source of drinking water and fried items were found to be significant having odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of (17.158, 6.244- 47.147), (0.192, 0.061- 0.603) and (12.206, 3.291- 45.275), respectively. The study revealed that cigarette smoking, consumption of tap water and high use of fried items increases the risk of developing bladder cancer. On the other hand, the use of government provided for drinking purpose is a protection against the urinary bladder cancer as compared to tap water.

Keywords :

Case study; Urinary Bladder cancer; Controls; Odds ratio; Risk factors;

Full Article - PDF    Page 96-104

DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2011/186

Review History    Comments

Our Contacts

Guest House Road, Street no - 1/6,
Hooghly, West Bengal,

+91 8617752708


Third Floor, 207 Regent Street
London, W1B 3HH,

+44 20-3031-1429