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British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 8, Issue.: 11


Cytological Findings in Urine of Adult Residents of Urinary Schistosomiasis Endemic Community in Cross River State, Nigeria


P. C. Inyang-Etoh1*, C. J. Anyanwu1, M. I. Udonkang1 and V. I. Equali1

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.

Article Information
(1) Toru Watanabe, Department of Pediatrics, Niigata City General Hospital, Japan.
(2) Philippe E. Spiess, Department of Genitourinary Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, USA and Department of Urology and Department of Oncologic Sciences (Joint Appointment), College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.
(1) Maha Mohamed Eissa, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt.
(2) Muhammad Ujudud Musa, Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Centre, Katsina, Nigeria.
(3) Luis Quihui Cota, Department of Public Health and Nutrition, Research Center for Food and Development, Mexico.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/9567


Aims: To investigate urinary cytological abnormalities among adult residents of a urinary schistosomiasis endemic community.
Study Design: Ethical approval, consent from the village Head/villagers, parasitological survey and cytological analysis of urine.
Place and Duration of Study: Adim Community in Cross River State, Nigeria between May and November 2014
Methodology: Urine samples from 160 sex matched adults aged 18–85 years were examined using standard parasitological techniques for the presence of ova of Schistosoma haematobium. The urine smears were stained with Papanicolaou and Alcian Blue (PH 2.5) staining techniques and examined for cytological abnormalities and the presence of Hyaluronic acid respectively.
Results: 18 (11.3%) subjects were infected. Subjects in the age groups >35 – 45 years had the highest prevalence rate 9(20.5%) while those in the age group >75 – 85 years had the lowest prevalence rate 0(0%) and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.359). The infection rate was higher among females 11(12.5%) than the males 7(9.7%) but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.580). Males had a higher mean egg count (18±25.7 egg/10 ml of urine) than the females (17±15.5 egg/10 ml of urine). Subjects in the age group >35–45 years had the highest level of abnormal epithelial cells 1(11.1%). Males had a higher prevalence of abnormal cells 3(42.9%) than the females 1(9.1%). There was a positive correlation between the occurrence of infection and abnormal epithelial cells (r = 0.5). 3(1.9%) of the subjects were positive for hyaluronic acid. Male subjects had a higher level of epithelial cells positive for hyaluronic acid 2(2.8%) than the female subjects 1(1.14%) but this was not statistically significant (p<0.05).
Conclusion: This study has reconfirmed the endemicity of urinary schistosomiasis and has also revealed the presence of abnormal epithelial cells as an indicator for bladder cancer in the urine of residents in Adim community.

Keywords :

Urinary schistosomiasis; endemic community; cytology; bladder cancer.

Full Article - PDF    Page 948-955

DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/18398

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