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British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 7, Issue.: 12


Retracted: Bioenergetics of Human Cancer Cells and Normal Cells during Proliferation and Differentiation


Nina A. Mikirova1*

1Bio-communication Research Institute, 3100 Hillside Ave, Wichita, Kansas 67219, USA.

Article Information
(1) Mahin Khatami, National Cancer Institute (ret.), The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
(1) Eugenio Ragazzi, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, Italy.
(2) Anonymous, Italy.
(3) Anonymous, Egypt.
Complete Peer review History:


Cancer cells are known to have different metabolic properties than normal cells, particularly their tendency to undergo glycolysis even under aerobic favoring conditions. This has created interest in how mitochondrial function in tumor cells may differ from that in normal cells. Using human malignant cells (SW-620, PC-3, HT-1080, SK-MEL, HL-60, K-562 and MOLT-3), human fibroblast (CCL-153) and human T Cells, we investigated three key parameters that have been typically to describe mitochondrial function: cellular ATP production, mitochondrial potential and cellular cardiolipin levels. On average, tumor cancer cells had more ATP production and greater mitochondrial potentials. For example, ATP levels in malignant cells ranged from 20 to 69 µmole/106 cells, with a cancer cell average of 40±18 µmole/106 cells. For normal cells, the ATP level range went from 9 to 24 µmole/106 cells, for an average of 15±11 µmole/106 cells. Mitochondrial potentials tended to be three times higher in cancer cells, perhaps because overall mitochondrial mass (as measured by relative cardiolipin levels) were twice as high in cancer cells. Higher mitochondrial masses are consistent with proliferation. Proliferating cells in general showed higher mitochondrial function compared to quiescent cells (confluent monolayers), and HL-60 cells showed reductions in all three mitochondrial parameters measured here when the cells were exposed to the differentiating agent TPA. The effects of ATP production inhibitors CCCP and oligomycin on mitochondrial function in normal and cancer cells were also compared. In general, in these experiments, cancer cell mitochondrial inhibition with these agents produced a decrease ATP levels by 30-40% while in normal cells ATP production was reduced by 60%. These results provide evidence of a mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells. Cancer cells appear to better withstand interference with ATP synthesis in mitochondria since they rely mainly on glycolysis as an energy producing mechanism.


Retraction Notice: This paper has been retracted from British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research due to the following reason:

‘The paper was submitted to British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research (BJMMR) on 26th Feb 2015 and published in BJMMR on 10th April after peer review and editorial acceptance. It came to our knowledge on 29th June 2015 that the same paper was submitted to the Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal on October 20, 2014 and authors mutually agreed to retract this paper to avoid copyright related complexities’. We thank all concerned persons for their active cooperation, help and patience during this process.

Keywords :

Cancer cells; bioenergetics; ATP production; cardiolipin concentration; and mitochondrial potentials.

Full Article - PDF    Page 971-982 Article Metrics

DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/17113

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