British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 6, Issue.: 10
Child Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Same-Sex Parent Families in the United States: Prevalence and Comorbidities
D. Paul Sullins1* 1Department of Sociology, The Catholic University of America, USA.
D. Paul Sullins1*
1Department of Sociology, The Catholic University of America, USA.
(1) Domenico De Berardis, Department of Mental Health, National Health Service, Psychiatric Service of Diagnosis and Treatment, “G. Mazzini” Hospital, Italy.
(1) Renata Marques de Oliveira, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
(2) Rejani.TG, Institute of Behavioral Sciences, Gujarat Forensic Sciences University, India.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/7834
Aims: This paper presents the first population data on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children raised by same-sex parents with the aims 1) to test whether residence with same-sex parents is associated with higher ADHD prevalence, and 2) to observe and assess any clinically significant aggravators or comorbidities.
Methodology: Aggregate data for 1997-2013 from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey yielded a representative sample of children from 207,007 households, including 512 with same-sex parents, permitting inferential comparisons.
Results: ADHD was more than twice (OR 2.4, 95% CL 1.6-3.4) as prevalent among children with same-sex parents than in the general population, after controlling for age, sex, ethnicity and parent SES. Comorbidities with general emotional problems and defiance behavior were standard. ADHD risk with same-sex parents was reduced among adopted children (OR 0.54 95% CL .27-1.1), null in the presence of parent psychological distress, and substantially elevated in the presence of stigmatization (OR 7.3 95% CL 1.4-38.1). In same-sex families, children with ADHD were over seven times (OR 7.5 95% CL 1.2-46.8) more likely to suffer stigmatization due to impaired interpersonal coping skills.
Conclusion: Diagnostic intake for ADHD should include parent sexual orientation, and treatment programs should include resources to bolster anti-victimization skills, particularly for children with same-sex parents. Results suggest the presence of shared genetic factors for same-sex attraction and ADHD, though more research is needed to confirm.
National health interview survey; same-sex parents; ADHD; attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; stigmatization.
DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/15897Review History Comments