British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 6, Issue.: 2
Epidemiology of Gallstone Disease among Pregnant women in Egypt: Multicenter Study
Saad Motawea1, Hatem Shalaby2, Ashraf Ghanem3 and Ghada El-Khawaga1* 1Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
2Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
3Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
Saad Motawea1, Hatem Shalaby2, Ashraf Ghanem3 and Ghada El-Khawaga1*
1Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
(1) Salomone Di Saverio, Emergency Surgery Unit, Department of General and Transplant Surgery, S. Orsola Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Italy.
(1) Anonymous, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, New York, USA.
(2) Mushtaq Chalkoo, Department of Surgery, Govt. Medical College Srinagar Kashmir, India.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/7266
Introduction: The frequency of gallstone disease among pregnant women attending for antenatal care in Egypt progressively increased during the last few decades. This study aimed to investigate the possible risk factors of gallstone disease among pregnant women attending two obstetrics and gynecology centers in Egypt (Ain Shams Obstetrics and Gynecology University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt and Obstetrics and Gynecology department at Mansoura University Hospital).
Methods: A Case control study was conducted, cases were (170) pregnant women with diagnosed gallstone disease and controls were age matched pregnant women without gallbladder disease (170). Both cases and controls were subjected to interview questionnaire. Nutrient intakes were calculated. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Ultrasound examination was performed. Blood samples were analyzed for lipid profile.
Results: Socio-demographic risk factors were illiteracy (OR=14.3), insufficient income (OR=10.6), non working (OR=3) and low social score (OR=3). Reproductive risk factors were previous hormonal contraception (OR=7.9), family history of gall stones (OR=4.2) and parity ≥4 (OR=3.8). The risk of gall bladder stone disease increased by increase in BMI (OR=12.8 for BMI ≥ 30 kg/ m2). The highest risky nutritional behaviors respectively were; the preference of fried meals (OR=41.3), taking more than two food servings rich in animal fat per day (OR=38.9), the habit of eating eastern sweets ≥twice weekly (OR=18.7), food intake between meals (OR=14) and night eating (OR=8.7). The highest risky physical activity score was light physical activity (OR=4.1).
Conclusion: Multiple risk factors were found among pregnant women with gallbladder disease. Most of them are modifiable.
Gallstone disease; pregnant; risk factors.
Full Article - PDF Page 218-225
DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/14633Review History Comments