British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 6, Issue.: 2
Adding a New Anticoagulant or Antiplatelet Agent for Patient Receiving Aspirin after an Acute Coronary Syndrome?--Results from a Pairwise and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized-Controlled Trials
Lan Gao1,2 and Shu-Chuen Li1* 1School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.
2Deakin Health Economics, Population Health Strategic Research Centre, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, VIC, Australia.
Lan Gao1,2 and Shu-Chuen Li1*
1School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.
(1) Gaetano Santulli, College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
(1) Pedro Beraldo de Andrade, Invasive Cardiology, Santa Casa de Marília, São Paulo, Brazil.
(2) Anonymous, Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/7263
Objectives: To synthesize the efficacy and safety outcomes from randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) regarding new oral anticoagulant, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) antagonist, and warfarin adjunctive to aspirin for patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) via pair-wise and network meta-analyses.
Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed in Embase, Medline, Cochrane Library Web of Knowledge, and Scopus. The pair-wise meta-analysis was undertaken respectively to each agent/treatment category via Revmen 5.1. In order to estimate the relative efficacy of each agent/treatment category whilst preserving the randomized comparisons within each trial, a Bayesian network meta-analysis was conducted in WinBUGS using both fixed- and random-effects model. Covariate analysis was performed to explore the effects of length of follow-up and age of subject on the final results.
Results: In total, 23 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. As shown by the results (OR,95%CI) for the pair-wise meta-analysis, new oral anticoagulants (0.85, [0.78, 0.93] and 3.04, [2.21, 4.19]), PAR-1 antagonists (0.80, [0.52, 1.22] and 1.55, [1.25, 1.93]) and warfarin (0.87, [0.74, 1.02] and 1.77, [1.46, 2.14]) might be able to provide better outcome in the incidences of major adverse events (MAE) but with higher bleeding risk comparing to aspirin treatment alone. Based on the model fit assessment, the random-effects model was adopted. The network meta-analysis (treatment effect comparing to aspirin lone) identified ximelagatran (-0.3044, [-0.8601, 0.2502]), dabigatran (-0.2144, [-0.8666, 0.4525]), rivoroxaban (-0.2179, [-0.5986, 0.1628]) and vorapaxar (-0.2272, [-0.81, 0.1664]) produced better improvements in MAE incidences whereas vorapaxar (0.3764, [-0.4444, 1.124]), warfarin (0.663, [0.3375, 1.037]), ximelagatran (0.7509, [-0.4164, 2.002]) and apixaban (0.8594, [-0.0049, 1.7]) produced less major bleeding events. The indirect comparisons among drug category (difference in incidence comparing to aspirin lone) showed new oral anticoagulants (-0.1974, [-0.284, -0.111]) and PAR-1 antagonists (-0.1239, [-0.215, -0.033]) to besuperior to warfarin (-0.1004, [-0.166, -0.035]) in the occurrences of MAE whereas PAR-1 antagonists (0.4292, [0.2123, 0.6476]) afforded better outcomes in major bleeding events against warfarin (0.5742, [0.3889, 0.7619]) and new oral anticoagulants (1.169, [0.8667, 1.485]).
Conclusion: Based on the study results, we cannot recommend the routine administration of new oral anticoagulant as add-on treatment for patients after ACS. However, for ACS patients comorbid with atrial fibrillation, new oral anticoagulant might be superior to warfarin in both efficacy and safety outcomes.
New oral anticoagulant; protease-activated-receptor; randomized controlled trial; network meta-analysis; acute coronary syndrome.
DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/14423Review History Comments