British Microbiology Research Journal, ISSN: 2231-0886,Vol.: 5, Issue.: 4

Short Research Article

Hygienic Status of Cow Milk and Wara from Local Fulani Herdsmen in two Western States of Nigeria


F. Oluwafemi1* and S. Lawal1

1Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Article Information
(1) Hung-Jen Liu, Distinguished professor, Director, Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan.
(1) George Chege Gitao, Dept Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Vet Medicine Kenya.
(2) Maged Refaat, Medicine, Allergy & Immunology Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
Complete Peer review History:


Aims: Microorganisms in milk and milk products are considered to pose certain hygienic risks for human health. The study aim was to assess the microbial load of cows’ milk from free-grazing cattle and local cheeses (wara) produced from milk.
Study Design: Samples of milk and soft cheese (wara) were randomly collected from farms within Oyo and Ogun states.
Place and Duration of Study: Milk samples were collected from Fulani herdsmen in Oyo and Ogun states during the summer months of May and June, 2012.
Methodology: One hundred and twenty-one samples of cows’ milk were collected from local Fulani herdsmen in Abeokuta and Ibadan, cities south west of Nigeria. Local cheeses called wara, processed by the wives of the pastoralists were obtained for pH and microbial analysis using standard microbiological techniques such as total aerobic count, Staphylococcus aureus count, Enterobacteriaceae count and fungal counts.
Results: pH of milk and wara were 5.8 - 6.8 and 5.0 - 6.5. Total viable count of bacteria in milk and wara were 2 x 102 - 2.6 x 107 and 3.3 x103 - 3 x 107cfu/ml. Fourteen samples had no coliforms. Coliform positive samples were 20 cfu - 3 x 107 and 5.5 x 102- 2.5 x 106 for milk and wara. Sixteen samples had no Staphylococcus aureus while positive samples had 21 cfu – 3 x 107 and 1000cfu – 6.4 x 106 for milk and wara respectively. 26 samples had no fungal growth. Fungal positive samples had2.6 x 102 -5.7 x 106cfu/ml and 4 x 104 - 4.3 x 106 for milk and wara. Aflatoxin M1 in positive samples range between 3000 – 7000 ng/L.
Conclusion: Results indicated that some of the milk and wara samples were low in microbiological quality. Routine surveillance test and basic education is recommended for herdsmen and their wives to avoid possible food-borne illness.

Keywords :

Microbial quality; cow milk; wara; pH; aflatoxin M1; basic education.

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DOI : 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/13469

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