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British Microbiology Research Journal

British Microbiology Research Journal, ISSN: 2231-0886,Vol.: 5, Issue.: 4


Original Research Article


Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns of Vulvovaginal Candida species among Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, South Western Uganda



Kiguli James Mukasa1*, Itabangi Herbert1, Atwine Daniel2,3, Kibuka Livingstone Sserunkuma4, Bazira Joel1 and Byarugaba Frederick1

1Department of Microbiology, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara Uganda.
2Department of Clinical Research, Epicentre Mbarara Research Centre, Mbarara, Uganda.
3Department of Community Health, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda.
4Department of Microbiology, Makerere College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.




Aims: To identify the Candida species that cause vulvovaginal candidiasis and determine their antifungal susceptibility patterns.
Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the antenatal clinic of Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in Mbarara Municipality, between December 2012 and February 2013.
Method: High vaginal swabs from 456 pregnant women were subjected to microscopy and culture on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. Candida isolates were identified by the germ tube and Analytical profile index (API® Candida) tests. Susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole was determined by the Etest strips and for clotrimazole and nystatin by the disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar supplemented with 2%w/v glucose and 0.5µg/ml methylene blue dye.
Results: Of the 456 High vaginal swabs cultured, 207 grew Candida species. Species distribution was as follows: C. albicans (78.95%), C. glabrata (14.35%), C. krusei (3.35%), C. tropicalis (1.44%), C. famata (0.96%), C. parapsilosis (0.48%) and C. lusitaniae (0.48%).
Resistance to nystatin was only observed in 0.61% of C.albicans. Resistance to clotrimazole was observed in 50%, 36.67% and 0.61% of C. famata, C. glabrata and C. albicans respectively. C. krusei showed a high resistance of 71.43% to fluconazole. C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. famata and C. lusitaniae exhibited 100% resistance to itraconazole. Resistance to voriconazole of less than 11% was exhibited by only C. albicans and C. glabrata.
Conclusion: C.albicans was susceptible to most antifungal agents tested except itraconazole and voriconazole. All isolates were susceptible to nystatin except less than 1% of Candida albicans. Non-albicans demonstrated resistance to some drugs especially itraconazole. We recommend use of Nystatin for empirical management of vulvovaginal candidiasis among pregnant women.


Keywords :

Antifungal; susceptible; resistant; vulvovaginal candidiasis; Candida species.


Full Article - PDF    Page 322-331    Article Metrics


DOI : 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/13804

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