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British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 5, Issue.: 10


Prevalence and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome among Individuals Living with HIV and Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment in Tanzania


Gibson B. Kagaruki1*, Godfather D. Kimaro2, Clement N. Mweya1, Andrew M. Kilale2,3, Ray M. Mrisho1, Amani F. Shao1,4, Akili K. Kalinga1, Amos M. Kahwa2, Esther S. Ngadaya2, Godlisten S. Materu1, Sayoki G. Mfinanga2 and Mary T. Mayige5

1National Institute for Medical Research-Tukuyu Center, P.O.Box 538, Tukuyu, Mbeya, Tanzania.
2National Institute for Medical Research-Muhimbili Center, P.O.Box 3436, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
3University of Bergen, Centre for International Health, Bergen, Norway.
4Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, University of Basel, Switzerland.
5National Institute for Medical Research, Headquarters, P.O.Box 9653, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Article Information
(1) Roberto Manfredi, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
(1) Nélida Virginia Gómez, Buenos Aires University, Argentina.
(2) Ronald Wang, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/6797


Aim: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) among HIV positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Tanzania.
Study Design: A cross sectional study was conducted among adults aged ≥18years living with HIV-infection and receiving ART.
Place and Duration of Study: The study participants were recruited from 12 care and treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam (urban) and Mbeya (rural) regions between October 2011 and February 2012.
Methodology: The prevalence of MetS was assessed using International Diabetes Federation’s criteria. Biochemical assays, anthropometric measurements, demographic characteristics and lifestyle behavioural data were collected.
Results: Study response rate was 351/377(93.1%) and 177 (50.4%) recruited participants were from urban settings and 238 (67.8%) were females. The prevalence of MetS was 25.6% and was higher among participants from urban than those from rural areas (35.6% vs 15.5%, p<.001). The components of MetS including raised triglyceride (43.5% vs 21.3%, p<.001), low high density lipoprotein (85.9% vs 28.2%, p<.001) and raised blood fasting glucose (10.2% vs 5.2%, p=.04) were more common among participants from urban than those from rural settings. MetS Risk factors including; consumption of fruits/vegetables <5 days/week (77.0% vs 59.3%, p<.001), not participating on vigorous intensity activities (65.5% vs 29.4% p<.001) and consuming mixed cooking oil (animal/vegetable) (15.5% vs 8.5%, p=.03) were higher among participants from rural than those from urban areas. In rural, only consumption of vegetables/fruits <5 days/week (AOR=5.50, 95%CI 1.21-24.95, p=.005) predicted the prevalence of MetS. In urban; sex (female) (AOR=3.01, 95%C 1.31-6.85, p=.002), having primary/no formal education (AOR=0.32, 95%CI 0.12-0.89, p=.04) and ex- or current alcohol drinker (AOR=2.43, 95%CI 1.17-5.06, p=.02) were significant predictors of MetS.
Conclusion: Prevalence, components and predictors of MetS prevailed more in urban than in rural settings. Interventions targeting prevention of MetS to reduce diabetes and cardiovascular diseases should consider settings diversification.

Keywords :

Metabolic Syndrome; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); antiretroviral therapy; risk factors; rural; urban; Tanzania.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1317-1327

DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/14455

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