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European Journal of Medicinal Plants, ISSN: 2231-0894,Vol.: 5, Issue.: 2


Evaluation of the Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Effects of Ethanolic Leaves Extract of Lagenaria brevifolia (Bitter gourd) on Hepatic and Renal Function of Rats


E. O. Ajani1*, S. Sabiu1, F. A. Bamisaye1, S. Ibrahim1 and B. A. Salau2

1Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Kwara State University, P. M. B. 1530, Ilorin, Nigeria.
2Department of Chemical Sciences, Redeemer University, Nigeria.

Article Information
(1) Marcello Iriti, Faculty of Plant Biology and Pathology Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Milan State University, Italy.
(1) Anonymous, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Brazil.
(2) Israel O. Obaroh, Department of Biological Sciences, Kebbi State University of Science and technology, Aliero, Nigria.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/6665


Aim: Dearth of information exists on the phytochemistry and toxicity profile of ethanolic leaves extract of Lageneria breviflora in spite of the much touted medicinal efficacy of the plant. The present study qualitatively evaluated the phytochemical compositions as well as the toxicological effect of the ethanolic leaves extract of the plant.
Study Design: For the acute toxicity, 35 rats of the Wistar strain divided into 7 groups of 5 rats each were used. The extract was administered to the rats at a single dose of 1, 100, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 5000 mg/kg respectively and observed for 14 days. The LD50 was thereafter estimated. For the sub-acute toxicity, 5 groups of 7 rats per group were used. The extract was administered continuously to 4 groups of the rat respectively at a dose of 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight daily for 8 weeks. The rats were thereafter sacrificed and some indices of hepatic and renal dysfunction were assayed for in the serum.
Results: Result revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and terpenoids in the leaves. The LD50 was estimated to be above 5000 mg/kg. The extract did not induce any significant alteration in the serum activity of ALT, AST and ALP at doses equal to and lower than 500 mg/kg, but reduces these parameters at higher dose. Serum albumin, bilirubin, potassium, creatinine, urea, calcium and sodium were not significantly altered at lower doses but sodium, bilirubin and creatinine were significantly altered at 1000 mg/kg dose. At the same dose, there was a significant increase in absolute liver and pancrease weight, but this was not observed at lower doses.
Conclusion: Conclusively, the extract may be considered safe for oral administration but may potentiate biochemical alteration if continuously administered at doses above 1000 mg/kg.

Keywords :

Active principles; free radicals; hypertrophy; NSAIDS; toxicity.

Full Article - PDF    Page 210-219

DOI : 10.9734/EJMP/2015/13400

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