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European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, ISSN: 2347-5641,Vol.: 4, Issue.: 4 (October-December)

Policy Article

A Simple Visual Model to Compare Existing Front-of-pack Nutrient Profiling Schemes


Daphne Van Der Bend1*, Joost Van Dieren1*, Marta De Vasconcelos Marques1*, Nick L. W. Wezenbeek1*, Niki Kostareli1*, Patricia Guerreiro Rodrigues1*, Elisabeth H. M. Temme2, Susanne Westenbrink2 and Hans Verhagen2,3*

1Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
2National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3721 MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
3University of Ulster, Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), Cromore Road, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland.


Nutrient profiling is an important tool for governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO’s) and for the food industry, to help consumers make healthier food choices. Multiple nutrient profiling systems (NPS) have been introduced worldwide. There is, however, no agreement on the use of a single NPS in leading regions like the USA and Europe. In 2008, the Arrow Model of Verhagen and van den Bergwas created to illustrate and compare characteristics of existing NPS. Recent developments in nutrient profiling give rise to the need for an updated Model. The present study aims to develop a comprehensive model, which can be used to explain and compare various front-of-pack nutrient profiling systems (FOP-NPS). An extensive literature research was conducted to obtain an overview of existing FOP-NPS worldwide. Only FOP-NPS that are currently in use, focus on health-related product aspects and target the general population (adults and children) were included. The Funnel Model was developed based on the analysis of 40 existing FOP-NPS and expert interviews. This Model illustrates different FOP-NPS and allows comparison among them. The Funnel Model includes several new characteristics compared to the Arrow Model. Numerous ingredients and four new characteristics were added to the Funnel Model: directivity, type of institution initiating the system, purpose and utilization. Several other characteristics were expanded with new elements. The Funnel Model also has a new visual presentation which is useful to clearly explain and compare FOP-NPS.

Keywords :

Nutrient profiling; visual model; funnel model; front-of-pack; labeling.

Full Article - PDF    Page 429-534

DOI : 10.9734/EJNFS/2014/10305

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