British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 2, Issue.: 3 (July-September)
Endothelial Dysfunction: An Early Cardiovascular Risk Marker in Asymptomatic Obese Individuals with Prediabetes
Alok K. Gupta1*, Eric Ravussin1, Darcy L. Johannsen1, April J. Stull1, William T. Cefalu1 and William D. Johnson1 1Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA.
Alok K. Gupta1*, Eric Ravussin1, Darcy L. Johannsen1, April J. Stull1, William T. Cefalu1 and William D. Johnson1
1Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA.
Aims: To elucidate if endothelial dysfunction is an early CV risk marker in obese men and women with prediabetes.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Clinical Research Unit, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA. United States.
Methodology: Overweight and obese status denotes an increasing adipose tissue burden which spills over into ectopic locations, including the visceral compartment, muscle and liver. Associated co-morbidities enhance cardiovascular (CV) risk. Endothelium which is the largest receptor-effector end-organ in our bodies, while responding to numerous physical and chemical stimuli maintains vascular homeostasis. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is the initial perturbation, which precedes fatty streak known to initiate atherosclerosis: insidious process which often culminates as sudden catastrophic CV adverse event. Asymptomatic men and women; [n=42] coming in after an overnight fast had demographic, anthropometric, clinical chemistry and resting endothelial function [EF: increased test finger peripheral arterial tone (PAT) relative to control; expressed as relative hyperemia index (RHI)] assessments.
Results: Adults with desirable weight [n=12] and overweight [n=8] state, had normal fasting plasma glucose [Mean(SD)]: FPG [91.1(4.5), 94.8(5.8) mg/dL], insulin [INS, 2.3(4.4), 3.1(4.8) µU/ml], insulin sensitivity by homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-IR, 0.62(1.2), 0.80(1.2)] and desirable resting clinic blood pressure [SBP/DBP, 118(12)/74(5), 118(13)/76(8) mmHg]. Obese adults [n=22] had prediabetes [FPG, 106.5(3.5) mg/dL], hyperinsulinemia [INS 18.0(5.2) µU/ml], insulin resistance [HOMA-IR 4.59(2.3)], prehypertension [PreHTN; SBP/DBP 127(13)/81(7) mmHg] and endothelial dysfunction [ED; reduced RHI 1.7(0.3) vs. 2.4(0.3); all p<0.05]. Age-adjusted RHI correlated with BMI [r=-0.53; p<0.001]; however, BMI-adjusted RHI was not correlated with age [r=-0.01; p=0.89].
Conclusion: Endothelial dysfunction reflective of cardiometabolic changes in obese adults can be an early risk marker for catastrophic CV events.
Fasting plasma glucose; healthy adults; reverse cholesterol transport pathway; insulin resistance; body weight; relative hyperemia index.
DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2012/1479Review History Comments