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British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 4, Issue.: 25 (01-10 September)


Gender Related Differences in the Prevalence and Correlates of Modifiable Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Seemingly Healthy Adult Nigerians–A Cross Sectional Study


Segun Johnson Showande1*, Olubukunola Adewunmi George2 and Omobolanle Olufunke Adekunle2

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
2Health Plus Limited, 4B Emma Abimbola Cole Street, Lekki Phase 1, Lagos, Nigeria.

Article Information


(1) Anonymous.

(2) Claudia Borza, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Pathophysiology, România.


(1) Anonymous.

(2) Anonymous.

(3) Anonymous.

Complete Peer review History:


Background: Mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is on the increase globally and the presence of multiple CVD risk factors is related to poor CVD outcomes. Most studies in Nigeria described the prevalence of CVD risk factors in populations with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and the aged.
Aim: We studied gender disparities in the prevalence and correlates of these factors in a seemingly healthy adult population.
Study Design: A cross-sectional study involving 540 participants aged from 18 to 74 years.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in five centers in Lagos state; Mafoluku/Airport, Ikeja, Lekki, Ikota and Yaba from February to June 2010.
Methods: Blood pressure, body mass index, total serum cholesterol and random blood glucose were measured with standard methods. Smoking status was also ascertained. Gender differences in the presence of multiple risk factors and prevalence of CVD risk factors were determined by Fisher’s Exact Test and Chi-Square test respectively. Pearson and partial correlation were used to determine the correlation between risk factors. Statistical significance were set at P<.01 and P<.05.
Results: The prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, diabetes and smoking was 163(30.2%), 140(25.9%), 106(19.6%), 80(14.8%), and 43(8%) respectively. Females had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and lower prevalence of smoking than males (P=.001). Only 212 (39.3%) participants had no existing CVD risk factors while 148(27.5%) had multiple risk factors with females been more affected (P=.03). There was no gender difference in the moderately positive correlations between risk factors before and after adjusting for age (P>.05).
Conclusion: The increase prevalence of CVD risk factors and the presence of multiple CVD risk factors call for urgent formulation of policies to address the looming epidemic of cardiovascular diseases through programs targeting prevention, systematic screening, interventions and control.

Keywords :

Cardiovascular diseases; risk factors; hypertension; hypercholesterolemia; diabetes; body mass index; smoking; Nigeria.

Full Article - PDF    Page 4325-4340 Article Metrics

DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2014/8737

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