British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 2, Issue.: 3 (July-September)
Mucosal Vaccination against Enteric Pathogens in the Developing World
William Langridge1*, Oludare Odumosu1, Somen Nandi3, Raymond Rodriguez3, Marino DeLeon1 and Zaida Cordero-MacIntyre2
1Department of Biochemistry and Center for Health Disparities and Molecular Medicine, Loma Linda School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda CA. 92354.
2School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda CA, 92354.
3Global HealthShare, Department of Molecular & Cellular Biology, College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
Of the approximately 9 million children under the age of 5 yr that die annually in developing nations, about 5.1 million will die from preventable infectious diseases. This disastrous human and economic loss is caused in large part by three types of acute diarrhea and attendant respiratory tract infections that are responsible for approximately 2.6 million of these deaths. Thus, enteric pathogens remain a major factor contributing to persistent poverty and poor health in developing nations. Novel mucosal vaccination strategies are emerging that can protect epithelial surfaces and therefore promise a simple, effective and safe interventional therapy to overcome the mortality generated by these debilitating infectious diseases. Before the full potential for mucosal vaccination against enteric diseases can be realized, the innate immune system must be strengthen by addressing secondary problems such as malnutrition, malabsorption and gastrointestinal tract impairment.
Here we describe the major enteric pathogens responsible for childhood morbidity and mortality in developing and resource-limited countries. We also discuss the development of mucosal vaccination strategies that when combined with modern principles of nutritional therapy may help improve the health and socio-economic status of developing nations.
Poverty, malnutrition; immunostimulation; enteric disease; parasites; rotavirus mucosal vaccines; health disparities.
Full Article - PDF
DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2012/882