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British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 4, Issue.: 18 (21-30 June)


Adherence to Lifestyle Modifications among Adult Hypertensive Nigerians with Essential Hypertension in a Primary Care Clinic of a Tertiary Hospital in Resource-poor Environment of Eastern Nigeria


Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh1*, Agwu Nkwa Amadi2, Godwin Oguejiofor Chukwuebuka Okafor3, Augustine Obiora Ikwudinma4, Frances Udoka Odu5 and Ezinne Uchamma Godswill-Uko6

1Department of Family Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria.
2Department of Public Health Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.
3Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria.
4Department of Family Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital Abakiliki, Nigeria.
5General Hospital, Kuje, Federal Capital Territory Administration, Abuja, Nigeria.
6Department of Anaesthesiology Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.

Article Information


(1) Salomone Di Saverio, Emergency Surgery Unit, Department of General and Transplant Surgery, S. Orsola Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Italy.


(1) Boma Okoh, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

(2) Anonymous.

Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/4235


Background: Lifestyle modifications (LSMs) are indispensable in blood pressure control among hypertensive patients. However, the extent to which patients lifestyles (LS) coincide with clinical prescriptions has become an important management challenge in primary care.
Aim: To describe adherence to LSMs among adult hypertensive Nigerians with essential hypertension in a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital in resource-poor environment of Eastern Nigeria.
Study Design: A primary care clinic-based descriptive cross-sectional study carried out on 140 adult patients with essential hypertension who were on treatment for at least 6 months at the primary care clinic.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the primary care clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria between April 2011 and November 2011.
Methodology: Data was collected using pretested, structured and interviewer-administered questionnaire. Each item of LS was scored on a five points Likert scale ordinal responses of always, most times, sometimes, rarely and none. Adherence to LSMs was assessed in the 30 days preceding the study and measured from the following domains: physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use, dietary fruits, vegetables, salt and fat consumptions. Each of the domains of LS was given a score of one point for healthy LS and zero point for unhealthy LS. Operationally, patients who scored 7 points in all the assessed domains were considered adherent. Specific adherence to LS factors was also determined.
Results: The overall adherence rate was 16.4%. Specifically, adherence was highest with the uses of tobacco (100.0%) followed by dietary salt (94.3%) and alcohol (90.7%). Other adherence rates were consumptions of dietary vegetables (75.7%), dietary fruits (66.2%), dietary fat and oils (64.2%) and physical activity (16.4%). Adherence was significantly associated with the female gender (p=.036).
Conclusion: This study has shown that adherence to LSMs was 16.4% with no smoking rated highest and physical activity the lowest. Female gender was significantly associated with adherence. There is need to sustain the current level of adherence on smoking while efforts should be made to improve on identified domains of inadequate adherence.

Keywords :

Adherence; adult hypertension; LSMs; primary care; Nigeria.

Full Article - PDF    Page 3478-3490

DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2014/9439

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