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British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 4, Issue.: 15 (21-31 May)

Review Article

A Review of Non-invasive and Invasive Embryo Characteristics to Indentify the Most Competent Embryo for Transfer


Dirk Kotze1*, Thinus F. Kruger2, Geoffrey Sher3 and S. Oehninger4

1Jones Institute, Norfolk, Virginia, USA.
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Tygerberg Hospital and Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa.
3University of Nevada, School of Medicine (USA); Executive Medical Director: Sher Institute for Reproductive Medicine, Las Vagas, USA.
4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Director, The Jones Institute for Reproductive Medicine | EVMS Medical Group; 601 Colley Avenue, Norfolk, VA 23507-2007, USA.

Article Information


(1) Pasquapina Ciarmela, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Polytechnic University of Marche, Italy.


(1) Boniface Ago, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

(2) Anonymous.

Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/3926


Identifying “competent embryos” (those with the greatest potential to develop into normal concept) for transfer to the uterus has been a matter of the highest priority and the subject of both hot debate and ongoing research, since the very inception of human in vitro fertilization (IVF). A thorough literature search was performed to evaluate the correlation between pronuclear morphology, early embryo cleavage speed, cleavage stage embryos, embryo/blastocyst development, “omics”, sHLA-G expression, PGS, and implantation/pregnancy-generating potential in ART. Based on available literature, an array/combination of laboratory observations could assist the scientist with embryo selection. The pronuclear stage morphology, the early embryo division, cleavage embryo stage and quality of the day 3 embryos provides limited guidance. We conclude that use of (invasive) PGS in specific patient populations is appropriate; however, more data are needed to determine its true value for overall impact in ART. Non-invasive selection of blastocysts on day 5 with optimal sHLA-G expression provides a very high degree of confidence to yield a viable pregnancy and potentially reduce multiple gestations.

Keywords :

Morphology; omics; soluble human leu kocyte antigen-G (sHLA-G); blastocyst; cytogenetics.

Full Article - PDF    Page 2910-2930

DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2014/8231

Review History    Comments

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