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British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 4, Issue.: 12 (21-30 April)


Ocular Tonometry and Sporadic Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease (sCJD): A Confirmatory Case-Control Study


Zoreh Davanipour1,6*, Eugene Sobel2,3,6, Argyrios Ziogas3,7, Carey Smoak1,8, Thomas Bohr1,9, Keith Doram4,10 and Boleslaw Liwnicz5#

1Department of Neurology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA.
2Department of Neurology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.
3Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.
4Department of Internal Medicine, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA.
5Department of Pathology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA.
6Current affiliation: Friends Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
7Current affiliation: University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.
8Current affiliation: Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA, USA.
9Current affiliation: Jerry L Pettis VA Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, USA.
10Current affiliation: Adventist Health, Roseville, CA, USA.

Article Information


(1) Mohamed Essa, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman.


(1) Jr. John W. Oller, University of Louisiana, USA.

(2) Anonymous.

(3) Jesus de Pedro-Cuesta, Carlos III Institute of Health, Spain.

Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/3515


Aims: To evaluate the hypothesis that sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) may be transmitted through ocular tonometry.
Background: The infectious agent of sCJD may be present in the cornea prior to clinical symptoms. Cornea infectiousness has been documented by cornea transplants in guinea pigs and humans. sCJD is resistant to complete inactivity by conventional sterilization techniques. Thus contact tonometry equipment is not disinfected sufficiently to kill sCJD. We previously hypothesized that contact tonometry is a sCJD risk factor.
Study Design: Population-based case-control study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 4 years.
Methodology: An 11-state case-control study of pathologically confirmed definite sCJD cases, individually matched controls, and a sample of control surrogates was conducted. Ocular tonometry histories were obtained from case-surrogates, controls, and a sample of control-surrogates.
Results: The odds ratio (OR) for ever vs never having had an ocular tonometry test was statistically significant for matched and unmatched analyses for 15 through 3 years prior to disease onset, using both control self-responses and control surrogates: ORs were ∞ and 19.4 with 1-sided P-values <0.0001 and 0.003 and ORs=∞ and 11.1 with 1-sided P-values <0.003 and 0.02, respectively. ORs increased as the number of tonometry tests increased during this age period: trend test, 2-sided P-value < 0.0001. For ≥5 vs <5 tonometry tests, the OR was 5.8 (unmatched) and 3.7 (matched), 2-sided P-value<0.00005. Respondents generally could not specify the type of tonometry. There was no indication of increased tonometry testing among cases within 2 years of disease onset.
Conclusions: The a priori hypothesis was supported. Contact tonometry, preferred by ophthalmologists, may be capable of transmitting sCJD. Consideration should be given to using disposable instrument covers after each use. The use the disposable covers or non-contact tonometry is preferable in the absence of effective disinfectant processes at this time.

Keywords :

Sporadic creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD); prion diseases; intraocular pressure(IOP)test; risk factors; iatrogenic transmission; eyes; ophthalmology; case-control study; neuroepidemiology.

Full Article - PDF    Page 2322-2333

DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2014/7247

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