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British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 4, Issue.: 11 (11-20 April)


Role of Anxiety on Patient Intolerance during Bronchoscopy


Cuneyt Tetikkurt1*, Ilknur Yasar1, Seza Tetikkurt2, Nail Yılmaz1, Bilge Yılmaz Kara1, Ruhi Yavuz3 and Rian Disci4
1Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Turkey.
2Department of Pathology, Bagcılar Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.
3Department of Psychiatry, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Turkey.
4Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Turkey.

Article Information


(1) Salomone Di Saverio, Emergency Surgery Unit, Department of General and Transplant Surgery, S. Orsola Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Italy.


(1) Nobuyuki Kobayashi, Takano Hospital, Japan.

(2) Kenneth Nugent, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, USA.

Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/3426


Aims: There are no current data about the adverse effects of anxiety on patient intolerance during bronchoscopy.The aim of our study was to assess the correlation between anxiety and patient intolerance during bronchoscopy.
Study Design: Retrospective research study
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, between January 2010 and 2013 March.
Methodology: Data from 94 patients were analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 59 years. Bronchoscopy was performed for lung cancer in 54, pulmonary nodules in 26 and pulmonary infiltration in 14 patients. Hospital Anxiety Depression scale was used to appraise the anxiety symptoms. Cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage, and sputum samples were performed in each patient when available.
Results: The anxiety or fear profile of the patients before bronchoscopy were as follows: dyspnea (78%), malignant disease (74%), nasal, laryngeal or tracheal irritation (70%), bronchoscopic findings (68%), and hemorrhage (42%). Bronchoscopic examination was intolerable in 14 cases while there was great difficulty to perform the procedure in 18 patients. Cytologic analysis revealed severe in 18, moderate in 22, and mild dysplasia in 25 patients while it was normal in 29 subjects. Hospital Anxiety Depression scale was over eight in 33 patients. The scale was over eight in 13 out of 14 patients who were intolerant to bronchoscopy. Cytology revealed severe in one and moderate dysplasia in another patient intolerant to bronchoscopy.
Conclusions: Anxiety appears to be the predominant factor for patient intolerance during bronchoscopy. Pulmonary function, atypical or dysplastic cytomorphological changes in sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage cytology did not show correlation with patient performance.

Keywords :

Bronchoscopy; bronchoalveolar lavage; sputum; cytology; intolerance; anxiety.

Full Article - PDF    Page 2171-2180

DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2014/6907

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