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Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, 2456-561X,Vol.: 10, Issue.: 2


Physicochemical Properties and Bacteriological Profile of Wheat Flours Produced and (or) Sold in Calabar, Nigeria


Jeffrey A. Nosa-Obamwonyi1* and Sylvester P. Antai1

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.

Article Information


(1) Dr. Tancredo Souza, Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Portugal.

(2) Dr. Bilal Ahmad Wani, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Jammu and Kashmir, India.


(1) A.O. Dauda, University of Ilorin, Nigeria.

(2) Patrícia Matos Scheuer, Federal Institute of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/27796


This study was aimed at investigating the physicochemical properties and bacteriological profile of white wheaten flour, wheat semolina and whole wheat meal produced and/or sold in Calabar. Ten (10) samples of each flour type was bought from ten strategic locations and analysed. The following physicochemical parameters of the samples were analysed: pH, moisture, ash, fat, gluten, protein, falling number. Microbiologically, total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), total coliform count (TCC), Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens counts were determined. Results showed that the ash contents of five white wheaten flour samples and the fat content of one white wheaten sample did not conform to SON (Standards Organisation of Nigeria) standards. TMAB and TCC of all samples conformed to SON standards. Salmonella spp was identified in 10% of all samples and E. coli was identified in one wheat semolina sample. However, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens were not detected in any of the samples. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.01) between the three wheat flour types for ash, fat, gluten and protein, falling number, TMAB and TCC. This study highlights the need for product monitoring by relevant regulatory agencies to ensure conformity to standards.

Keywords :

Whole wheat meal; wheat semolina; white wheaten flour; physicochemical analysis; bacteriological analysis; Cross River state.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-11

DOI : 10.9734/ARJA/2018/45491

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