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Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, ISSN: 2456-6276,Vol.: 6, Issue.: 1


The Ameliorating Potential of Annona muricata on Sodium Fluoride-induced Toxicity on Liver and Kidney of Male Wistar Rats


Blessing M. Onyegeme-Okerenta1*, Benjamin A. Amadi1 and Vivian O. Ezeonyilimba1

1Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Article Information


(1) Dr. Francisco Cruz-Sosa, Metropolitan Autonomous University, Iztapalapa Campus Av. San Rafael Atlixco, Mexico.


(1) Ukam U. Uno Biology, Cross River State College of Education, Nigeria.

(2) Richard Sauerheber, Palomar Community College, USA.

(3) Maurice E. Imiuwa, University of Benin, Nigeria.

Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/26208


Introduction: Annona muricata is a plant common to areas of South and North America as well as in West Africa, especially in Western Nigeria. It is one of the tropical plants that demonstrate antioxidant properties. The effect of combined oral administration of sodium fluoride (NaF) and fruit juice, ethanol stem bark and leaf extracts of A. muricata on biochemical parameters of mature male wistar rats was investigated.

Methods: Eighty-five (85) adult male wistar rats were divided into 17 groups of 5 rats each. Sodium fluoride (10 mg/kg) and fruit juice, ethanol stem bark and leaf extracts of A. muricata at five different doses of 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 mg/kg body weight were administered to the rats for 6 weeks. Blood samples were taken after 6 weeks of administration of the extracts, through the ocular puncture and the sera were used for biochemical analyses; creatinine, urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and thyroid function tests were carried out.

Results: Combined administration of NaF + stem bark and NaF + leaf extracts showed non-significant (p>0.05) decrease in the activities of ALT, AST and urea level, while NaF + fruit juice had varied effects on creatinine level and AST activity. Photomicrograph of the liver and the kidney sections of group administered with NaF only showed damaged hepatic tissue with focal aggregate of inflammatory cell, portal aggregate of inflammatory cells and severely damaged renal tissue with coagulative necrosis of the glomeruli that leads to closure of malpighian body, apoptosis of tubular cells, focal area of intrarenal haemorrhage and tubular necrosis. However, administration of (NaF + fruit juice), (NaF + stem bark extract) and (NaF + leaf extract) resulted in mild/moderate ameliorative and regeneration of damaged hepatic and renal tissues.

Conclusion: Concomitant treatment of NaF and fruit juice extract of A. muricata was found to have an ameliorative effect on the liver and kidney of sodium fluoride-induced toxicity.

Keywords :

Annona muricata; sodium fluoride; photomicrograph; liver; kidney.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-17

DOI : 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/43274

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