Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, ISSN: 2454-7352,Vol.: 16, Issue.: 4
Previously Unrecognized Primary Factors in the Demise of Endangered Torrey Pines: A Microcosm of Global Forest Die-offs
J. Marvin Herndon1*, Dale D. Williams1 and Mark Whiteside2 1Transdyne Corporation, 11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131, USA. 2Florida Department of Health in Monroe County, 1100 Simonton Street, Key West, FL 33040, USA.
J. Marvin Herndon1*, Dale D. Williams1 and Mark Whiteside2
1Transdyne Corporation, 11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131, USA.
2Florida Department of Health in Monroe County, 1100 Simonton Street, Key West, FL 33040, USA.
(1) Dr. Isidro Alberto Pérez Bartolomé, Professor, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Valladolid, Spain.
(2) Dr. Mohamed Nageeb Rashed, Professor, Department of Chemistry, Aswan University, Egypt.
(3) Dr. Masum A. Patwary, Geography and Environmental Science, Begum Rokeya University, Bangladesh.
(1) Antipas T. S. Massawe, Dar es Salaam University College of Education, Tanzania.
(2) Felix Ike, Abia State University, Nigeria.
(3) Eric S. Hall, USA.
(4) Gabrielli Teresa Gadens Marcon, University of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/25791
Objective: Forests worldwide are experiencing die-offs on an unprecedented scale. So too is the endangered Torrey Pine, Pinus torreyana. Just as the global toxicity from acid rain was recognized and abatement measures taken, a new undisclosed source of atmospheric toxins from geoengineering rapidly escalated to near-global scale. Published forensic evidence is consistent with coal fly ash (CFA), the toxic waste-product of coal-burning, being the main particulate used for geoengineering. The objective of this paper is to disclose unrecognized primary factors arising from geoengineering which underlie the demise of Torrey Pines and global forest die-offs.
Methods: Snow and fog water samples collected after aerial spraying were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and interpreted in light of extensive field observations.
Results: Atmospheric moisture extracts many elements in water-soluble form from aerosolized CFA, including aluminum, which is hazardous to many biota, especially trees. Needles and leaves trap toxin-laden atmospheric moisture, and concentrate it by evaporation. Additionally, toxin-concentrate evaporates on needles and leaves, adversely affecting respiration. Eventually, the re-solubilized toxin-concentrate falls to the ground and enters the root system. This is one of the primary factors which underlie the demise of Torrey Pines and forest die-offs worldwide. Another primary factor is enhanced solar ultraviolet radiation, which is caused, we posit, in part by disruption of atmospheric ozone by aerosolized CFA, which contains ozone-killing chlorine in variable amounts ranging as high as 25,000 µg/g. Together, these primary debilitating factors weaken trees’ natural defenses and make them vulnerable to insects, such as bark beetles, fungal infections, and other biotic factors.
Conclusion: We disclose a natural mechanism whereby trees’ needles and leaves concentrate toxins extracted by moisture from aerosolized coal fly ash used for intentional, man-made weather and climate change. This form of deliberate air pollution must be halted to preserve Earth’s forests.
Atmospheric aerosols; forest die-off; Torrey Pine; coal fly ash; climate adjustment; geoengineering; weather modification.
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