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Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2394-1111,Vol.: 17, Issue.: 3


Antibiotic Prescription Pattern in Bacterial Opportunistic Infections among Patients Stabilized on HAART in a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in North-East Nigeria


Paul Otor Onah1*, Siyaka Abdul Lateef1 and Aliyu Ya’uba Kaigamma1

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Article Information


(1) Dr. Amr Ahmed El-Arabey, Pharmacology & Toxicology Department,  Al-Azhar University, Egypt & University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), China.


(1) Kelvin K. Juma, Alupe University College, Kenya.

(2) Alicia Garcia-Falgueras, Official College of Psychologist in Madrid, Spain.

Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/25490


Introduction: The violent insurgency in northeast Nigeria has uprooted people from their homes and means of livelihood and has made it increasingly difficult to afford the cost of HIV/AIDS care services. Bacterial infections are the most frequently encountered opportunistic infection among patients stabilized on highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART]. It is critical that antibiotics remain affordable to ensure patients can have financial access to effective treatment.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of bacterial opportunistic infections, identify commonly prescribed antibiotics and quantify the cost of antibiotic treatments.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional retrospective carried out in 600 bed University of Maiduguri teaching hospital. A sample size of 360 (Andrew Fisher method) was used for the study. Data was obtained from randomly selected medical records of patients on HAART.  Data were entered into SPSS 21 for descriptive statistics.

Results and Discussion: Bacterial opportunistic infections accounted for more than two-thirds of all infections (65.4%) and the majority has been on HAART for 5 – 10 years. The most prevalent bacterial infections were upper respiratory tract infections, sexually transmitted and urinary tract infections accounting for 74.6% of all bacterial infections. Antimicrobial therapies using generic brands cost less than half of the cost of innovator brands. It would take 1 – 14 days of wages of the least paid a government employee to afford treatment of an episode of bacterial infection thus making it unaffordable.

Conclusion: Bacterial infections remain a significant source of morbidity and treatment is largely unaffordable to the majority of patients.

Keywords :

HIV/AIDS; opportunistic infections; affordability; antibiotics; cost.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-10

DOI : 10.9734/JAMPS/2018/40476

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