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Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, XXXX,Vol.: 1, Issue.: 4

Case Report

Histopathological Finding in Urea Toxicity in Cattle


Manal, H. Salih1, Ishraga, G. Ibrahim2*, M. O. Halima1, Amna Khalfalla3 and E. A. Muna4

1Central Veterinary Research Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Animal Resources Research Corporation, Alamarat, Khartoum, Sudan.

2Central Veterinary Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Animal Resources Research Corporation, Alamarat, Khartoum, Sudan.

3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.

4Central Veterinary Research Laboratory, Department of Bacteriology, Animal Resources Research Corporation, Alamarat, Khartoum, Sudan.

Article Information


(1) Dr. Jean-Marie Exbrayat, Professor, Reproduction and Comparative Development, University of Lyon, General Biology, Catholic University of Lyon, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, France.


(1) Musa Zakariah, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

(2) Sunday Akau Hena, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/25482


Aim:  the aim of this paper was to investigate the histopathological changes in the liver, kidney and lung during urea toxicity in cattle.

Place and Duration of Study: In September 2015, Alslait South Dairy Farm, Khartoum, Sudan reported sudden death of some cattle occurred after fed wet concentrated feed prepared from molasses and urea.

Methodology: Clinical history and clinical signs were recorded. Among 12 cattle of affected shed, 9 (male=2, female =7) cattle showed clinical sign and within 2-3 hours of onset of clinical sign 7cattle were dead. Postmortem examination was done and liver, kidney, lung and feed samples were collected and sent for laboratory analysis.

Result: Results revealed that the male were less prone to be affected (16.7%) with no case fatality (0%) in comparison to highly affected female (50.7%) with very high case fatality (77.7%). On postmortem examination, congested liver and kidney, gastroenteritis with hemorrhagic intestine, edema of lung were observed. Histopathological results revealed necrosis of hepatic cells and renal proximal tubules with dissociation of hepatic cord and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the kidney, congestion of the pulmonary alveolar capillaries, bronchial haemorrhage and emphysema and interstitial pneumonia.

Toxicological testing was done on the supplied feed samples and non-protein nitrogen was calculated as 28.18%.

Conclusion: in Sudan, urea is used in urea molasses straw preparation as an effective and inexpensive source of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) in feed supplements in the ruminant. Cautions might be taken as urea poisoning may occur in ruminants when incorrect dose or feeds are inappropriately mixed with urea. The onset of the clinical picture may start in a matter of minutes to hours after consumption of urea and in most cases it is acute and can cause heavy mortality.

Keywords :

Urea toxicity; cattle; histopathological finding.

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