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Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2456-8899, ISSN: 2231-0614 (Past),Vol.: 27, Issue.: 2


Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Bacterial Isolates on Close Contact Surfaces and Health Care Workers in Intensive Care Units of a Tertiary Hospital in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe


Joshua Mbanga1*, Atida Sibanda1, Sekai Rubayah2, Fiona Buwerimwe1 and Kudakwashe Mambodza1

1Department of Applied Biology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Applied Sciences, National University of Science and Technology, P.O.Box AC 939 Ascot, Bulawayo 00263, Zimbabwe.

2Department of Infection Prevention Control, Mpilo Central Hospital, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

Article Information


(1) Cecilia Lucero Estrada, Microbiología General, Área Microbiología, Facultad de Química Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Argentina.


(1) Gokben Ozbey, Firat University, Turkey.

(2) Bamidele Tajudeen, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Nigeria.

Complete Peer review History:


Aims: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the degree of microbial contamination of environmental surfaces and health-care workers (HCWs) in two multi-bed ICUs at a tertiary-referral hospital in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

Place and Duration of Study: Mpilo Hospital, National University of Science and Technology Microbiology Department; between January 2017 and August 2017.

Methodology: In total 64 surfaces were swabbed in two ICUs; inclusive of 6 hand swabs obtained from on-duty nurses. Fungal and bacterial isolates were identified using standard microbiological methods. Bacterial antibiogram profiles were determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.

PCR was used to determine the presence of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) genes in isolated Enterobacteriaceae and the presence of the mecA gene in Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

Results: Out of the 58 fomites and medical devices swabbed 50 (86.21%) were positive for bacterial contamination, with coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) (20.31%) and Klebsiella species (20.31%) being the most prevalent environmental isolates. All 6 (100%) hand swabs obtained from the HCWs were positive for microbial contamination.  A total of 51 (75%) of the 68 bacterial isolates were resistant to at least 3 antibiotics and 39 multi-drug resistance patterns were exhibited by the MDR isolates. Combinations of the ESBL genes blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV were detected in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates.  Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus isolates (MRSA) were detected using phenotypic and molecular methods.

Conclusion: ICU inanimate surfaces and medical equipment in the adult and paediatric ICUs of the referral hospital were heavily contaminated with MDR bacteria that could predispose critically ill patients to acquire nosocomial infections.

Keywords :

Antibiotic resistance; intensive care units; multi-drug resistance; Zimbabwe.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-15

DOI : 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/42764

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