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International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, ISSN: 2278-1005,Vol.: 4, Issue.: 1 (January)


Original Research Article


Hypertension in the Adult Population of Kaya Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Burkina Faso: Prevalence and Associated Factors



Boukaré Doulougou1,2,*, Séni Kouanda2, Aristide Bado2, Laetitia Nikièma2 and Maria Victoria Zunzunegui1,3,4

1Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, 3875 Rue Saint Urbain, 2ème étage, Local 205 Montréal, QC, H2W 1V1, Canada.
2Research Institute of Health Sciences (IRSS), 03 BP 7192 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso.
3Institute of Public Health Research, University of Montreal (IRSPUM), Montréal, QC, Canada.
4Research Center of the Hospital of the University of Montreal (CRCHUM), Montréal, QC, Canada.




Background: Recent scientific reports have shown that high blood pressure is a major public health problem in urban populations of sub-Saharan African countries. Yet, information on this morbidity in the rural areas is limited.
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of hypertension and to identify associated factors in rural and semi-urban populations in Burkina Faso.
Methods: This is a community-based cross-sectional study conducted between September and December 2012 among residents of Kaya Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). A stratified sample of 1481 residents, at least 18 years of age, was randomly selected and interviewed. Anthropometric measurements were carried out. Two blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken after sitting at rest for about 25 to 30 minutes. Hypertension was defined as mean systolic BP of at least 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP of at least 90mmHg. Those taking hypertensive medication were also considered hypertensive. Logistic regression was carried out to identify factors independently associated with hypertension.
Results: The study sample comprised 726 rural residents and 755 semi-urban residents. The weighted overall prevalence of hypertension was 9.4% (95% CI: 7.3%-11.4%); 5.5% (95% CI: 3.8%-7.1%) in the rural areas; and 11.0% (95% CI: 8.8%-13.2%) in the semi-urban areas. In rural areas, older age and higher body mass index were associated with hypertension. In semi-urban areas, older age, not being married, familial history of hypertension, physical inactivity, psychological distress, presence of chronic conditions and poor self-assessment of health, were associated with hypertension.
: Hypertension prevalence was higher in semi-urban than in rural areas of Kaya HDSS, but was overall relatively low. However, it may be possible to further reduce its prevalence and prevent increasing prevalence by acting on the identified risk factors. Encouragement to maintain low body weight through traditional diets and to increase physical activity could be beneficial.


Keywords :

Hypertension; Kaya; health and demographic surveillance system; urbanization.


Full Article - PDF    Page 94-110    Article Metrics


DOI : 10.9734/IJTDH/2014/6240

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