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Journal of Advances in Microbiology

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 2456-7116,Vol.: 9, Issue.: 1


Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolates from Patients Attending Health Care Facilities, Ebonyi State, Nigeria


V. U. Olugbue1*, V. O. Nwaugo2, M. O. Okata1, I. Oko3 and N. U. Okoro4

1Microbiology Unit, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, P.M.B. 1007, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological and Physical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu, P. M. B 2000 Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria.

3Medical Clinic, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, P.M.B 1007, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

4Department of Food Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, P.M.B 1007, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.


Article Information


(1) S. Pradeep, Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden & Research Institute, Kerala.


(1) Judit Szabó, University of Debrecen, Hungary.

(2) Falodun Olutayo Israel, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

(3) Anslem Ajugwo, Madonna University, Nigeria.

Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/23594




Aim: To determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi (called Salmonella Typhi henceforth) isolates from clinical specimens and the age group commonly infected with the bacteria.

Study Design: This is a prospective cross-sectional study conducted among in-patients and out-patients suspected of having typhoid fever.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted between May 2015 and June 2016 at the Microbiology Laboratory of Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

Methodology: A total of 782 clinical specimens of blood (296) and stool (486) were analyzed for the presence of S. Typhi. The organisms were isolated and confirmed following standard microbiological procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates was carried out using the disc diffusion test. Multidrug resistance was defined in this study as resistance to at least three different classes’ antibiotics.

Results: A total of 98 (12.53%) S. Typhi isolates were obtained from the clinical specimens analyzed. Out of this total, the stool specimen yielded 52 (10.70%) S. Typhi isolates whereas 46 (15.54 %) came from a blood specimen. There was no significant difference (P = 0.27) observed in the number of stool and blood specimen that yielded S. Typhi. The age group 31 – 40 years had the highest number 41 (41.84%) of S. Typhi infection. Within this age group, males had the highest number 23 (42.59%) of S. Typhi infection than females 18 (40.91%).  A high sensitivity to ofloxacin 50 (89.29%), followed by gentamycin 43 (76.79%) was observed against S. Typhi isolates from the tertiary hospital (MMH). A high resistance of 51 (91.07%) was observed against each of ceftazidime and amoxicillin/clavulanate followed by cefuroxime and cefixime that had 45 (80.36%) each. All the S. Typhi isolates from the teaching hospital (FETHA) were sensitive to ofloxacin 42 (100%), followed by gentamycin and ciprofloxacin that had 40 (95.24%) each. In FETHA, antibiotic resistance was observed to be highest against ceftazidime 38 (90.48%) followed by amoxicillin/clavulanate 32 (76.19%). A total of 37 (37.76%) S. Typhi isolates were multidrug resistant. Out of this number, 22 (39.29%) came from stool specimen whereas 15 (33.71%) came from a blood specimen. This study has shown that ofloxacin is as an effective drug in the treatment of S. Typhi infection in this area.


Keywords :

Prevalence; S. typhi; agglutination; antimicrobial.


Full Article - PDF    Page 1-8    Article Metrics


DOI : 10.9734/JAMB/2018/39802

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