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Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, 2456-7779,Vol.: 4, Issue.: 4


Measurement of Type of Substance Based on Protons, Neutrons and Electrons in the Substance


Milan Perkovac1*

1University of Applied Sciences, Zagreb, Croatia.

Article Information


(1) Suresh Kumar Patra, Professor, Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, India.


(1) Ahmet Turşucu, Şirnak University, Turkey.

(2) Ebru Çopuroğlu, Gaziosmanpaşa University, Turkey.

(3) Adel H. Phillips, Ain-Shams University, Egypt.

(4) Burcu Akça, Ardahan University, Turkey.

(5) Sergei Ivannikov, Institute of Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.

Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/22962


Aims: The study aims to determine a method to identify and measure all substances. 

Study Design: Applying the new structural constant of atoms, s0 = 8.278 691 910, the possibility of introducing type of substance as a new physical quantity and its unit boscovich is studied.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Applied Sciences, Zagreb, Croatia, 2015–2017.

Methodology: Theoretical studies showed that the velocity of an electron in an atom cannot exceed the speed of light, implying that no atom of atomic number more than Zmax = 2s02 can be generated. It provides the substrate for the unit boscovich, B =1/Zmax = 0.0072953572330.

Results: Any substance whose physical or chemical structure is known can be expressed in terms of type of substance, with value S (standing for Soddy's number). The ratio S/B is obtained as a numerical factor f = f(p,n,e) = p/100+n/104+e/108+D/1012, where p, n, and e are the numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons, respectively, and D is a distinguishing number, where D = D(p,n,e). The function f(p,n,e) represents the numerical value of the physical quantity type of substance, so the following expression applies: S = f(p,n,e) B.

Conclusion: Atomic research and knowledge of the maximum atomic number Zmax induced the introduction of type of substance as a new physical quantity and its unit boscovich, B. This allows all existing substances (i.e., vacuum, elemental particles, chemical elements, nuclides, molecules, compounds, and ions) to be expressed as with any other physical quantity.

Keywords :

Boscovich; marking; soddy; structural constant; type of substance.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-8

DOI : 10.9734/AJOPACS/2017/37863

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