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Annual Research & Review in Biology

Annual Research & Review in Biology, ISSN: 2347-565X,Vol.: 22, Issue.: 2


Formulation of Cost-effective Medium Using Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Arthrospira platensis Cultivation under Real Environment


Puganeswary Sukumaran1, Rosimah Nulit1, Normala Halimoon2, Sanimah Simoh3, Hishamuddin Omar1 and Ahmad Ismail1*

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

2Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

3Biotechnology Research Centre, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.


Article Information


(1) Olatunde Samuel Dahunsi, Environmental Biotechnologist, Landmark University, Nigeria.

(2) George Perry, Dean and Professor of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio, USA.


(1) Arvindkumar Drave, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India.

(2) Gisel Chenard Díaz, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

(3) Marcelo Teixeira Leite, Federal University of Paraíba, Brazil.

Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/22656




Even though Arthrospira is a well-known superfood, it is not extensively commercialized in developing countries like Malaysia due to the high production cost with low biomass yield. Based on literature, the algal production cost can be discounted by reducing the cost of medium utilizing cheaper and readily available chemicals. Therefore, the present study was conducted to experiment the prospect of Arthrospira platensis cultivation in newly designed medium with commercial or industrial grade fertilizers under real environment. Consequently, growth and yield of A. platensis was investigated under outdoor condition using modified Kosaric medium (MKM) which was designed by substituting the major laboratory chemicals in standard Kosaric medium (SKM) with commercial grade baking soda, sea salt, urea, phosphoric acid, potassium hydroxide and Epsom salt. Urea as an alternative nitrogen resource to sodium nitrate was pulse-fed throughout the cultivation period. The algal growth was measured through optical density, biomass dry weight and chlorophyll a content. The algal yield was determined by calculating its productivity and specific growth rate. The growth and yield of A. platensis was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in MKM in terms of optical density with 2.541 ABS, biomass dry weight with 1.30 g L-1, chlorophyll a content with 12.96 mg L-1, productivity with 0.141 g L-1 d-1 and specific growth rate with 0.253 µ d-1 compared to SKM in eight days of cultivation period. The present finding showed the potential of MKM in lowering the medium cost up to 97% compared to SKM without compromising the algal yield under natural condition with proper cultivation techniques such as preadaptation and fed-batch addition of urea in the late evening.


Keywords :

Arthrospira platensis; cost-effective medium; urea; productivity; outdoor conditions.


Full Article - PDF    Page 1-12    Article Metrics


DOI : 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38182

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