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Annual Research & Review in Biology, ISSN: 2347-565X,Vol.: 21, Issue.: 5

Review Article

Cronobacter sakazakii, a New Threat: Characteristic, Molecular Epidemiology and Virulence Factors


Afsaneh Mashoufi1, Mohammad Hashemi1, Kiarash Ghazvini2, Majid Ghayour Mobarhan1 and Asma Afshari1*

1Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Article Information
(1) Oluyomi A. Sowemimo, Department of Zoology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Osun State, Nigeria.
(2) George Perry, Dean and Professor of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio, USA.
(1) Gokben Ozbey, Firat University, Vocational School of Health Services, Turkey.
(2) Rabindra Kumar Mandal, University of Louisville, USA.
(3) Abhishek Kumar, Nitte University, India.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/22510


Cronobacter spp. are opportunistic pathogenic bacteria that can cause different diseases through consumption of contaminated food. Cronobacter sakazakii is the most important species found in Powdered Infant Formula (PIF) and baby food. PIF is the most significant source of C. sakazakii which provides an appropriate environment for its growth and survival. Infant formula is heated during its production, although this amount of heating is not enough for sterilization and disinfection. C. sakazakii is considered a threat in all age groups. It may cause different illnesses such as meningitis, bacteraemia, sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in children. It may also cause infections in adults such as pneumonia septicemia, osteomyelitis, splenic abscesses, and wound infections. The mortality rate is high (40-80%) and the survivors suffer from severe neurological complications. Poor hygienic preparation of infant food at home or at hospitals has been reported as one of the main reasons of C. sakazakii infection. The gold standard based on FDA-recommended methods (Food and Drug Administration) for the isolation and identification of C. sakazakii obtained from powdered infant formula, is both time consuming and labor intensive.Since the rapid detection and diagnosis of this bacterium is important, new molecular methods are being used today. These methods have meaningful and significant advantages as compared to traditional methods on account of speed, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of C. sakazakii and its molecular identification and virulence genes.

Keywords :

Powdered infant formula; foodborne disease; epidemiology; virulence genes; polymerase chain reaction; Cronobacter sakazakii.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-21

DOI : 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37657

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