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International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, ISSN: 2321-7235,Vol.: 1, Issue.: 2 (July-December)

Review Article

The Development of Cannabidiol as a Psychiatric Therapeutic: A Review of Its Antipsychotic Efficacy and Possible Underlying Pharmacodynamic Mechanisms

 

Shahin AM Jalali1* and William E. Johnson1

1Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK.

Article Information

Editor(s):

(1) Weike Mo, School of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, USA.

Reviewers:

(1) Antonio Waldo Zuardi, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil.

(2) Anonymous.

Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/2248

Abstracts

Cannabidiol (CBD), a once-considered inert cannabis constituent, is one of two primary constituents of cannabis, alongside delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC/THC). In the last 30 years, CBD has become implicated with a range of pharmaceutical mechanisms of great therapeutic interest and utility. This review details the literature speculating CBD’s attenuation of psychotic symptoms, particularly in light of a marked elevation in mean THC concentrations, and a concomitant decline in CBD concentrations in the prevalent U.K street market cannabis derivatives since c. 2000. CBD is purported to exhibit pharmacology akin to established atypical antipsychotics, whilst THC has been implicated with the precipitation of psychosis, and the induction of associated symptoms. The aim of the review was to clarify the conjecture surrounding CBD’s antipsychotic efficacy, before going on to detail prominent theories about its associated pharmacodynamics. Were CBD’s antipsychotic efficacy established, then there is potential for major latent anthropological repercussions to manifest, such as significant elevations in psychosis manifestations in the U.K. The review found a largely affirmative body of evidence asserting CBD’s antipsychotic efficacy. CBD exhibited capacity to attenuate natural and artificially induced psychoses in both animal and human cohorts, the latter of which included individuals considered resistant to conventional treatment. CBD also shows promising potential for use as an antipsychotic drug for Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with psychosis, owing to its low rate of extra-pyramidal side-effect induction. A range of potential pharmacological mechanisms behind CBD’s neuroleptic pharmacology are outlined, with particular emphasis on its prevention of the hydrolysis and reuptake of the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide. However, given the nebular aetiological basis for psychoses, explicit conclusions on how CBD attenuates psychotic symptoms remains to be determined.

Keywords :

Cannabidiol; CBD; antipsychotic; THC; psychosis; schizophrenia; anandamide; cannabinoid.

Full Article - PDF    Page 113-147

DOI : 10.9734/INDJ/2013/6192

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