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Chemical Science International Journal, 2456-706X,Vol.: 21, Issue.: 1


Effect of Cooking on Arsenic Reduction in Two Rainfed Rice Varieties of Bangladesh and Their Health Risk Assessment


Makoto Sekine1*, Masahiro Tokumura2,3, Mohammad Raknuzzaman1,4, Md Habibullah Al Mamun1,4, Md Kawser Ahmed5, Muhammad Rafiqul Islam6, Yuichi Miyake3, Takashi Amagai3 and Shigeki Masunaga2

1Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501, Japan.

2Faculty of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501, Japan.

3Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Science, University of Shizuoka, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan.

4Department of Fisheries, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.

5Department of Oceanography, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.

6Department of Soil Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh.

Article Information
(1) Georgiy B. Shul'pin, Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
(2) T. P. West, Professor, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University-Commerce, USA.
(1) Raquel Frenedoso da Silva, University of Colorado Denver, USA.
(2) Fábio Henrique Portella Corrêa de Oliveira, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Brazil.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/22362


To investigate the effects of cooking on reducing the health risk, the concentrations of total arsenic in raw and cooked rice were measured. Raw rice of two rainfed rice varieties was purchased from market of Dhaka, Bangladesh in 2015. Minikit is a long slender grained popular rice variety in Bangladesh while Kataribhogh is a fine grained aromatic rice which is famous for its aroma and texture. One hundred grams of raw rice was washed with Milli-Q water three times. Then, raw rice was cooked with Milli-Q water: grain ratio of 5:1 in an iron pan covered with lid and the excess water after cooking was decanted. Cooked rice was freeze-dried and ground for arsenic analysis. A microwave digestion was used to digest the rice samples for analysis. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The arsenic concentrations in raw rice of Minikit and Kataribhogh in this study were 0.123−0.153 µg g−1 and 0.611−0.783 µg g−1, respectively. On the other hand, the total arsenic contents in cooked rice of Minikit and Kataribhogh were 0.115 ± 0.004 µg g−1 and 0.386 ± 0.004 µg g−1, respectively. There was 17% and 46% reduction of arsenic due to washing and cooking of Minikit and Kataribhogh rice, respectively. Based on the concentration of arsenic in raw and cooked rice, the carcinogenic risk of arsenic via rice ingestion was estimated. The estimated risk of arsenic with cooked rice was 1.2 × 10−5 and 4.1 × 10−5 while that of raw rice was 1.5 × 10−5 and 7.7 × 10−5 for Minikit and Kataribhogh rice, respectively. The results of this study revealed that health risk assessment on the basis of arsenic content of raw rice would be overestimated than the actual health risk.

Keywords :

Arsenic; rainfed rice; cooking; risk assessment.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-7

DOI : 10.9734/CSJI/2017/37982

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