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Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2456-8899, ISSN: 2231-0614 (Past),Vol.: 22, Issue.: 12


Antibiogram of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis amongst Pharmacy Undergraduates in a Nigerian University


Angus N. Oli1, Chiamaka B. Ugwu1,2, Eunice O. Osuala3, Charlotte Blanche Oguejiofor4, George Uchenna Eleje4*, Felix N. Osuala5 and Malachy C. Ugwu1

1Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

3Department of Nursing Sciences, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nigeria.

4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nigeria.

5Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Madonna University, Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Article Information


(1) Sinan Ince, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Afyon Kocatepe, Turkey.

(2) Rodrigo Crespo Mosca, Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research (IPEN-CNEN), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Brazil.


(1) Joseph Odey Oko, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Nigeria.

(2) Oroma Nwanodi, A. T. Still University, USA.

(3) Raheela Mohsin Rizvi, Aga Khan University, Pakistan.

(4) Linus Ossai, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Complete Peer review History:


Objectives: To assess the knowledge, perception, incidence and the antibiogram of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).  

Methods: Validated questionnaires were used to collect demographic information of consenting study participants and to test the participants’ level of knowledge and perception of VVC among pharmacy undergraduates. High-vaginal swab specimens were also collected for isolation of Candida species and speciation using standard yeast identification protocol and CHROMagar respectively.

Results: Among the 160 participants, yeasts were detected in 43.75% and 27.50% by culture and direct microscopy respectively. Having multiple sexual partners (at least two), poor vaginal hygiene and antibiotic usage were shown to significantly increase the incidence of VVC (p<0.05). Yeasts other than Candida albicans were predominant (66.67%), especially Candida tropicalis (40.00%). Although participants’ knowledge about VVC was good (80.49%), their perception was only average (54.10%). Susceptibility test showed that the isolates were susceptible to voriconazole (84.37 ± 5.70%), fluconazole (71.54 ± 7.66%) and nystatin (65.70 ± 12.33%). The commonest isolate (Candida tropicalis) was farely susceptible to voriconazole (77.00%) and fluconazole (63.00%) but resistant to nystatin (36.00%).

Conclusion: There is high prevalence of VVC despite good knowledge and average perception. Candida tropicalis was predominant in the study. Based on antibiogram, Voriconazole was the most effective drug/antibiotic and drug of choice for therapy.

Keywords :

Vulvovaginal candidiasis; knowledge and perception; asymptomatic mycosis; drug resistance.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-10

DOI : 10.9734/JAMMR/2017/33340

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