Advertisement
Quick Menu

Upcoming Journals
  • No Upcoming Journals

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2456-8899, ISSN: 2231-0614 (Past),Vol.: 22, Issue.: 11

 

Review Article

 

The FITT Principle in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: From Cellular Adaptations to Individualized Exercise Prescription

 

 

Konstantina Dipla1*

1Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Sports Science at Serres, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.

 

Abstracts

 

Diabetes mellitus is a complex disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) arises from a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, including physical inactivity and poor nutritional habits. Accumulating evidence suggests that the majority of T2DM cases can be prevented through diet, physical activity, and exercise modification. Acute exercise bouts improve glucose homeostasis by increasing skeletal muscle glucose uptake through insulin-dependent and non-insulin dependent pathways; whereas, chronic exercise training induces alterations in genes’ expression, promoting mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose transporters (GLUT4) expression and protein enhancements, and fiber type transformation. However, individuals with T2DM show a low participation and poor adherence to exercise training. Alterations in metabolic, vascular and neural function induced by T2DM may impede skeletal muscle blood-flow during exercise, contributing to exercise intolerance. Thus, appropriate exercise programs that will improve glycemic control and will be attractive and effective for the individual with diabetes are still needed. The purpose of this article is (i) to present cellular mechanisms through which exercise can improve glycemic control, (ii) to describe the exercise prescription characteristics (frequency, intensity, time, type; FITT) required to achieve optimal benefits in T2DM, and (iii) to highlight the pathophysiological alterations induced by T2DM and obesity that should be considered when designing an exercise program. Genetic predisposition, diabetes/obesity phenotypes, oxidative stress, brain insulin sensitivity, perceived exertion, and initial fitness levels or training experience influence the inter-individual variability in exercise responsiveness. Thus, exercise is prescription should be individualized in order to achieve maximal benefits and high adherence.

 

Keywords :

Diabetes; exercise; glycemic control; cardiovascular; insulin resistance; glucose transport; muscle oxygenation.

 

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-18    Article Metrics

 

DOI : 10.9734/JAMMR/2017/34927

Review History    Comments

Search this site

Advanced Search

Announcement & News

ISI Thomson Reuters selected British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research for Emerging Sources Citation Index

We are delighted to inform that ISI Thomson Reuters selected British Journal of Pharmaceutical Resea...

SCOPUS selected Annual Research & Review in Biology (ARRB)

We are delighted to inform that famous indexing organization SCOPUS (from Elsevier) selected  A...

Index Copernicus Evaluation Result Released

We are delighted to inform that Index Copernicus (a leading indexing organization from Pol...

Journal Repository (JR): Permanent Digital Archiving of SDI journals

SDI is happy to announce that all our journals are now permanently archived in Journal Repository (J...

Index Copernicus Value of British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research

  We are delighted to inform that Index Copernicus (a leading indexing organization ...

SDI journal got 35th ranking in Publons

We are delighted to announce (as of 04/01/2016) that British Journal of Medicine and Medical Re...

Growth of SDI and world publication market

As of 2014, total 25,064 journals are competing in World market of journal publication. In 2011, tot...

Publication and site statistics (up to Sept, 2015)

  Number of submission: 22181 (Total up to Sept, 2015) Number of published paper: 10949&n...

Index Medicus selected 15 SDI journals

We are delighted to inform that Index Medicus (IMSEAR) has selected following 15 SDI journals for in...

SCIENCEDOMAIN international received 5844 submissions in 2013

SCIENCEDOMAIN international is pleased to announce that it has received 5844 submissions in 2013, ac...



SCIENCEDOMAIN Awards

  • No Awards listed.

Browser Compatibility : Mozila firefox, Google Crome and IE 7 & above. Creative Commons License Terms & Condition   |   Privacy Policy   |   Join Us   |   Help   |   Contact Us
© Copyright 2010-2017, SCIENCEDOMAIN international. All rights reserved.