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Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2456-8899, ISSN: 2231-0614 (Past),Vol.: 22, Issue.: 10


Possible Impact of Thyroid Dysfunction on Menstrual Cycle in HIV/TB Co-infected Females in NAUTH, Nnewi, Nigeria


R. Ukibe Nkiruka1*, N. Ukibe Solomon2, N. Monago Ifeoma3, C. Onyenekwe Charles1, E. Ahaneku Joseph4 and A. Ilika Linus5

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria.

2Department of Prosthesis and Orthotics, School of Health Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

3Department of Medical Services, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria.

4Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria.

5Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Article Information


(1) Rui Yu, Environmental Sciences & Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.


(1) Lívia Garcia Bertolacci-Rocha, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Brasil.

(2) Toshio Hattori, Kibi International University, Japan.

(3) Germano Manuel Pires, National Institute of Health, East Africa.

(4) Guadalupe García-Elorriaga, Mexican Social Security Institute, Mexico.

Complete Peer review History:


Background: Thyroid dysfunction is among the commonest endocrinopathies in HIV as well as Tuberculosis infection and can pose unique consequences on women’s reproductive health.

Aim of Study: The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of thyroid dysfunction on menstrual cycle of HIV/TB Co-infected females in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: A total of 210 reproductive aged women (15-45 years) were randomly recruited for the study and grouped into: (i) Symptomatic HIV females (n=30); (ii) Symptomatic HIV females on ART (n=30); (iii) Symptomatic TB females (n=30); (iv) Symptomatic TB females on ATT (n=30); (v) Symptomatic HIV/TB females (n=30), (vi) Symptomatic HIV/TB females on therapy (n=30); and (vii) Control females (n=30). After due consent, blood samples were collected at the follicular (Fp) and luteal phases (Lp) of their menstrual cycle for determination of thyroid indices (FT3 (ng/ml), FT4 (µg/dl, TSH (µIU/ml) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, CD4+ T-cells (/µl) using Cyflow SL Green Cytometer.

Results: There was significantly lower FT3 but significantly higher TSH values in Symptomatic HIV and Symptomatic HIV/TB females and significantly lower FT3 with normal TSH values in Symptomatic TB compared respectively with Control females at both phases of menstrual cycle (P=.05). CD4 T-cells counts was significantly lower in all test groups compared to Control females at both phases of menstrual cycle (P=.05) and  significantly higher in Symptomatic HIV on ART, TB on ATT and HIV/TB females on treatment compared to their counterparts not on therapy (P=.05 respectively). The thyroid indices showed hypothyroidism in Symptomatic HIV females and Symptomatic HIV/TB females while euthyroid sick syndrome was observed in Symptomatic TB females with significant drop in CD4 T-cells.

Conclusions: The study showed significant derangement in thyroid indices and CD4 T-cells in all the study subjects. Early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid dysfunction is beneficial.

Keywords :

HIV; TB; Co-infection; menstrual cycle; thyroid dysfunction; CD4 T-cells.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-13

DOI : 10.9734/JAMMR/2017/34123

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