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International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, ISSN: 2320-7035,Vol.: 15, Issue.: 6


Tillage and Rice Straw Management Affect Soil Enzyme Activities and Chemical Properties after Three Years of Conservation Agriculture Based Rice-wheat System in North-Western India


Sushil Kumar Kharia1*, H. S. Thind1, Sandeep Sharma1, H. S. Sidhu2, M. L. Jat3 and Yadvinder-Singh1

1Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, India.

2Borlaug Institute for South Asia, Ladhowal, Ludhiana-141008, India.

3International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), New Delhi 110012, India.

Article Information
(1) Junhong Bai, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.
(1) Valentin Kosev, Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria.
(2) Khaemba Raphael, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/18981


Aims: To evaluate the effects of rice establishment, tillage and rice straw management on changes in soil enzyme activities and chemical properties in soil after three cycles of continuous rice-wheat system.

Study Design: The experiment was laid in split plot design with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: PAU, Ludhiana, 2010-2013.

Methodology: The experiment was started during kharif season of 2010. The design of an experiment was having 12 treatments with 3 replications. The main plot treatments in rice (zero till direct seeded rice, ZT-DSR; conventional till direct seeded rice, CT-DSR; zero till direct transplanted rice, ZT-DTR and puddled transplanted rice, PTR) and three sub-plot treatments in wheat (conventional till wheat without rice straw, CTW-R; ZT wheat without rice straw, ZTW-R, and ZT wheat with rice straw retained as surface mulch using Happy Seeder, ZTW+R).

Results: Zero tillage with rice straw retention (ZTW) as surface mulch (+R) increased wheat yield by 9% and 15% compared with conventional tillage (CTW) and ZTW with no residue (-R). Significantly higher dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate, alkaline phosphatase, phytase and urease activities were recorded under ZTW+R compared with ZTW/CTW-R in 0-5 cm soil layer. Organic carbon, Olsen-P, available K and DTPA-extractable micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu) in the surface 0-5 cm soil layer were significantly higher in ZTW+R compared with ZTW/CTW-R. Soil enzyme activities were significantly and positively correlated with each other, soil organic carbon, Olsen-P and grain yield of wheat.

Conclusion: We concluded that RCTs (ZTW and rice residue retention) improve soil enzyme activities and chemical properties in surface 0-5 cm soil layer and enhance productivity and sustainability of rice-wheat system.

Keywords :

Conservation agriculture; rice straw surface mulch; tillage; enzyme activities; rice-wheat system.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-13

DOI : 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/33494

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