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International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, ISSN: 2320-7035,Vol.: 15, Issue.: 6

Original-research-article

Tillage and Rice Straw Management Affect Soil Enzyme Activities and Chemical Properties after Three Years of Conservation Agriculture Based Rice-wheat System in North-Western India

 

Sushil Kumar Kharia1*, H. S. Thind1, Sandeep Sharma1, H. S. Sidhu2, M. L. Jat3 and Yadvinder-Singh1

1Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, India.

2Borlaug Institute for South Asia, Ladhowal, Ludhiana-141008, India.

3International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), New Delhi 110012, India.

Article Information
Editor(s):
(1) Junhong Bai, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.
Reviewers:
(1) Valentin Kosev, Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria.
(2) Khaemba Raphael, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/18981

Abstracts

Aims: To evaluate the effects of rice establishment, tillage and rice straw management on changes in soil enzyme activities and chemical properties in soil after three cycles of continuous rice-wheat system.

Study Design: The experiment was laid in split plot design with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: PAU, Ludhiana, 2010-2013.

Methodology: The experiment was started during kharif season of 2010. The design of an experiment was having 12 treatments with 3 replications. The main plot treatments in rice (zero till direct seeded rice, ZT-DSR; conventional till direct seeded rice, CT-DSR; zero till direct transplanted rice, ZT-DTR and puddled transplanted rice, PTR) and three sub-plot treatments in wheat (conventional till wheat without rice straw, CTW-R; ZT wheat without rice straw, ZTW-R, and ZT wheat with rice straw retained as surface mulch using Happy Seeder, ZTW+R).

Results: Zero tillage with rice straw retention (ZTW) as surface mulch (+R) increased wheat yield by 9% and 15% compared with conventional tillage (CTW) and ZTW with no residue (-R). Significantly higher dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate, alkaline phosphatase, phytase and urease activities were recorded under ZTW+R compared with ZTW/CTW-R in 0-5 cm soil layer. Organic carbon, Olsen-P, available K and DTPA-extractable micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu) in the surface 0-5 cm soil layer were significantly higher in ZTW+R compared with ZTW/CTW-R. Soil enzyme activities were significantly and positively correlated with each other, soil organic carbon, Olsen-P and grain yield of wheat.

Conclusion: We concluded that RCTs (ZTW and rice residue retention) improve soil enzyme activities and chemical properties in surface 0-5 cm soil layer and enhance productivity and sustainability of rice-wheat system.

Keywords :

Conservation agriculture; rice straw surface mulch; tillage; enzyme activities; rice-wheat system.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-13

DOI : 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/33494

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