+91 8617752708

British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 20, Issue.: 10


Urine Abnormalities and Chronic Kidney Disease in Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy-naive Adults: A Cross-sectional Study


Ruth C. Brenyah1, Mildred E. Gborbidzi2, Charles Nkansah2, Felix Osei-Boakye2 and Richard K. D. Ephraim2*

1Department of Clinical Microbiology, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana.

Article Information
(1) Chryssoula Staikou, Medical School, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece, 1st Department of Anaesthesia, Aretaieio Hospital, Athens, Greece.
(1) Johnstone Kumwenda, University of Malawi, Malawi.
(2) Nélida Virginia Gómez, Buenos Aires University, Argentina.
(3) Verónica Alejandra Gaona Flores, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/18560


Objective: This study investigated chronic kidney disease (CKD) and urine abnormalities in highly active antiretroviral therapy naïve (HAART-naïve) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults, presenting to two antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics in the Volta region of Ghana.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of 100 newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients attending ART clinics of the St. Anthony’s and Ho Municipal hospitals both in the Volta region was conducted. Vital clinical history and socio-demographic data were recorded from the folder of eligible participants. Blood and urine samples were collected for serum creatinine estimation; urinalysis was performed with dipstick and light microscopy. CKD was assessed with the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) guidelines.

Results: Nine percent (9%) of the participants had CKD (eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Prevalence of CKD was higher (88.9%) in females than in males (11.1%). Median creatinine levels were significantly higher in males than in females (P=0.0103). Eighteen percent (18%), 13%, 11% of the participants had proteinuria, pyuria and haematuria respectively. On urine microscopy, we recorded 8% (8/100) crystalluria (7/8 -calcium oxalate and 1/8 -triple phosphate), 9% epithelial cells, 20% pus cells and 7% red blood cells among our participants. Participants with confirmed CKD had more pyuria and haematuria than those without CKD. 

Conclusion: This study revealed a 9% prevalence of CKD among our participants with the condition being more common in females. Urine abnormalities like proteinuria, haematuria, pyuria and crystalluria were common in our participants. Routine urinalysis and screening for CKD in HIV/AIDS patients should be strengthened as it will help in early detection of renal abnormalities.

Keywords :

Chronic kidney disease; urine abnormalities; highly active antiretroviral therapy naïve; estimated GFR; HIV/AIDS.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-8

DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/32355

Review History    Comments

Our Contacts

Guest House Road, Street no - 1/6,
Hooghly, West Bengal,

+91 8617752708


Third Floor, 207 Regent Street
London, W1B 3HH,

+44 20-3031-1429