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Annual Research & Review in Biology

Annual Research & Review in Biology, ISSN: 2347-565X,Vol.: 12, Issue.: 1


Human Dietary Intake of Metals through Fish Consumption in Bayelsa, Nigeria: Swali Market-River Nun, Case Study


Arinze O. Uche1,2,3*, Francis D. Sikoki2,3, Roseline S. Konya3,4, Bernard B. Babatunde2,3 and Marcus O. Ifeh5

1African Centre of Excellence, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

2Centre for Marine Pollution Monitoring and Seafood Safety, University of Port Harcourt,  Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

3Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

4State Ministry of Environment, Rivers State Secretariat, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

5Federal Medical Centre, Yenegoa, Bayelsa, Nigeria.


Article Information
(1) Hans Vliegenthart, Bijvoet Center, Division Bioorganic Chemistry, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
(2) George Perry, Dean and Professor of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio, USA.
(1) Mirela Miclean, Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Romania.
(2) R. C. Ekeanyanwu, Imo State University, Nigeria.
(3) Domenico Voltolina, Centro de investigaciones biológicas del Noroeste, Laboratorio UAS-Cibnor, Mazatlán, Mexico.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/18271




Thirty-three samples belonging to five fish families were investigated for metal load with a view to determining the health implications on infants, children and adults in Yenegoa where the fish samples were collected. The metal analysis was done using X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF); dietary intake and health impact were calculated for metals using the Estimated Dietary Intake (EDI) and Hazard Index (HI) respectively. The study revealed that the family Cichlidae had the highest metal load (513.20 mg/kg) followed by Synodontidae (303.97 mg/kg), Mormyridae (278.99 mg/kg), Mugilidae (278.33 mg/kg) and Cyprinidae (229.43 mg/kg). The difference between the metal load for each family was statistically significant at P<0.05. For metal species, the order from the highest to the lowest was Fe>Zn>Cr>Ni>Mn>Cu>Ba>V>Pb>Cd>As>Hg corresponding to mean values of 137.79, 60.59, 25.03, 18.86, 18.25, 18.12, 10.31, 8.71, 2.29, 2.12, 0.55, 0.15 mg/kg respectively. The EDI showed that seven (7) metals for adults and six (6) metals for children out of the twelve (12) metals in the study were above the limit set by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and FAO/WHO. The HI revealed that eight (8) out of the twelve (12) metals studied were >1for both children and adults while infants had just three (3) metals >1. This calls for serious concern for consumers of fish in Yenegoa and may also be indicative of some high level of water and sediment pollution in the surrounding waters.


Keywords :

Bayelsa; hazard index (HI); estimated dietary intake (EDI); health impact; infants; adults; children.


Full Article - PDF    Page 1-9    Article Metrics


DOI : 10.9734/ARRB/2017/31494

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