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British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, ISSN: 2231-0614,Vol.: 10, Issue.: 10


Risk Factors Associated with Limb Amputation in a Referral Hospital in Benue State Nigeria


E. T. Amaefula1, I. O. G. Owoeye2* and N. J. Kortor3

1Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

2Department of Community Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Ugbowo, Edo State, Nigeria.

3Department of Surgery, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.

Article Information


(1) Weiguang Wang, Research Institute in Healthcare Science, School of Applied Sciences, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK.

(2) Masahiro Hasegawa, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu City, Mie, 514-8507, Japan.


(1) Anonymous, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria.

(2) Nkosana Motsitsi, University of Pretoria, South Africa.

(3) Anonymous, Dicle University, Turkey.

(4) Anonymous, Nigeria.

(5) Nazım Gümüş, Numune Research and Education Hospital, Turkey.

Complete Peer review History: http://sciencedomain.org/review-history/11254


Background: Trauma, diabetes mellitus and peripheral vascular disease are age old known risk factors associated with amputation. However, at the Nongu Kristi U Sudan hen Tiv (NKST) Rehabilitation hospital, Mkar, Gboko, Benue state Nigeria, HIV/AIDS is increasingly becoming a major risk factor for upper limb amputation, and this is investigated in this study.

Objectives: To determine the risk factors involved in amputation in a referral hospital located in Benue State Nigeria.

Methods: A Descriptive cross sectional study design was adopted for this study where the pre-operative assessments for HIV testing, serum Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) level, Full Blood Count (FBC), CD4 counts, Hepatitis B and C antigens were carried out using standard laboratory investigation techniques. Dopplar ultrasonographic assessment of the affected limb was done preoperatively to determine the nature and level of vascular obstruction while post-operative histocytology of the amputated stump was performed to determine the pathology at the Benue State University. Data obtained were entered into a profoma already designed for the study while statistical analysis was performed with the aid of SPSS (Version 20) with level of significance set at 95%.

Results: A total of 60 patients booked for amputation within the study period were enrolled for this study. Majority were Males 41 (68.3%), out of which amputation cases in individuals below 10 years of age were mainly due to trauma (8.3%). The age range of 21-40 years recorded the highest number of amputations 24 (40%). In the female patients, trauma was responsible for 8 (42.1%) cases while HIV was associated with 1 (5.3%) of all amputations. In males trauma and HIV/AIDS were indications in 25 (61%) and 10 (24.4%) respectively. Other risks factors in males responsible for amputation were diabetes 2 (4.9%) and vascular diseases 1 (2.4%). In females, diabetes mellitus was associated with 6 (31.5%) of amputations. There is a statistically significant difference in the indication for limb amputation in male and female patients where HIV/AIDS was significantly higher in males 10 (24.4%) than in females (x2 = 13.1; p= 0.01). Lower limbs 49 (81.7%) amputations were more than upper limbs 11 (18.3%) amputations. This study revealed that HIV/AIDS ranked second as an indication for upper limb amputations although trauma was the main indication for most upper limb amputations.

Conclusion: This study showed that trauma remains the predominant risk factor for amputation, however HIV/AIDS is emerging as a major indication for upper limb amputation.

Keywords :

Amputation; risk factors; HIV/AIDS; Nigeria.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-7

DOI : 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/14715

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