International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, ISSN: 2278-1005,Vol.: 10, Issue.: 4
Epidemiology of Hookworm Infection and the Influence of Some Epidemiological Factors on their Prevalence in Some Farming Communities in Ebonyi State, Nigeria
I. A. Nnachi1*, O. O. Odikamnoro1, A. U. Nnachi2, O. C. Ani1, C. A. Uhuo1 and C. C. Egwuatu3 1Department of Applied Biology, Faculty of Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria. 2Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
I. A. Nnachi1*, O. O. Odikamnoro1, A. U. Nnachi2, O. C. Ani1, C. A. Uhuo1 and C. C. Egwuatu3
1Department of Applied Biology, Faculty of Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria.
2Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
(1) Anthony R. Mawson, Public Health and Director Institute of Epidemiology and Health Services Research, Jackson State University, USA.
(1) Shola K. Babatunde, Kwara State University, Nigeria.
(2) Golam Hafiz, Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Bangladesh.
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Aims: This study was carried out to assess aspects of the epidemiology of hookworm infection and the influence of some epidemiological factors on their prevalence in some farming communities in Afikpo South L.G.A. of Ebonyi State.
Study Design: This was a laboratory-based observational study.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Applied Biology Laboratory, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria between May, 2013 and November, 2013.
Methodology: A total of 442 stool samples from school children and adults were collected and examined using direct smear and formol-ether concentration techniques for the presence of the parasite eggs.
Results: Out of the 442 examined, 35(7.9%) samples were positive for hookworm infections. Other helminthic infections observed were Ascaris lumbricoides 192(43.4%) and Trichuris trichiura 4(0.9%). The only mixed infections were seen between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides which recorded 21(4.8%) prevalence. There was no significant difference in the rate of infection with hookworm between the different age groups (X2=2.68; P>0.05), though 8-14 years age group had the highest infection rate (9.8%) while those between 21-30 had the lowest (3.5%). The sex distribution showed a higher infection rate in females with prevalence of 22(9.0%) while 13(6.6%) cases were recorded among the males, however, there was no significant difference in infection rate between the sexes (X2=0.90; P>0.05).
Conclusion: This study shows that the occurrence and distribution of hookworm and other geohelminth infections were still high in Afikpo South L.G.A. despite the periodic deworming exercises by the governmental and non-governmental agencies. The different epidemiological factors analyzed including farming, use of streams and open defaecation presented the highest risk factors for hookworm infections. Hence, provision of portable drinking water, adequate sanitary disposal of faeces and refuse, health education on the mode of transmission of hookworm and improved personal hygiene should be integrated into the periodic deworming exercises for optimum result.
Hookworm; epidemiology; geohelminth; prevalence; Ascaris lumbricoides; Trichuris trichiura.
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DOI : 10.9734/IJTDH/2015/19916Review History Comments