+91 8617752708

British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, ISSN: 2278-0998,Vol.: 10, Issue.: 4


Time Perspective, Hope, and Learning Strategy among Rural Australian University Students


Justin Ganzer1, Nerina J. Caltabiano1* and Karim Hajhashemi2

1Discipline of Psychology, College of Healthcare Sciences, James Cook University, P.O.Box 6811, Cairns, QLD. 4870, Australia.

2College of Arts, Society and Education, James Cook University, Australia.

Article Information
(1) Eleni Griva, University of Western Macedonia, Greece.
(1) Linda De Wet, Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, South Africa.
(2) Giovana Reis Mesquita, Psychology Department, Federal University of Bahia, Brazil.
(3) Jones Osasuyi Orumwense, Wellspring University, Nigeria.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/10159


Research seeking to improve retention at Universities has traditionally had a focus on student engagement. Temporal orientation has been theorised as having a significant influence on student engagement. Zimbardo’s Time Perspective Inventory, the State Hope Scale, and the Study Process Questionnaire were completed by 167 Psychology students attending a rural university. Future Time Perspective and Past Positive were positively correlated with the Hope Pathway subscale. Present Hedonistic Time Perspective was positively correlated with the Agency subscale of Hope. There was a significant difference between deep and surface learners with regards to Future Time Perspective. No significant differences between school leavers and mature-aged students were found for the variables of Time Perspective and Hope. School leavers utilized surface learning strategies, while mature-aged students tended to use deep learning strategies. Current research suggests time perspectives may be helpful in enhancing and supporting academic engagement and persistence in higher education.

Keywords :

Student engagement; surface learners; deep learners; school leavers; mature-aged students; time perspective.

Full Article - PDF    Page 1-10

DOI : 10.9734/BJESBS/2015/19449

Review History    Comments

Our Contacts

Guest House Road, Street no - 1/6,
Hooghly, West Bengal,

+91 8617752708


Third Floor, 207 Regent Street
London, W1B 3HH,

+44 20-3031-1429